Hybridized orbitals (can't understand diagram)

  1. Please see attachment.

    1. "Now the 2s orbital and two of the 2p orbitals of B hybridize to form a set of three equivalent sp2 hybrid orbitals." The notes says.

    Can someone tell me why are there two 2p orbitals in B? I thought electronic configuration of B is 1s2 2s2 2p1?

    2. What does the [He] beside B mean?

    Thanks in advance.

    Attached Files:

  2. jcsd
  3. Borek

    Staff: Mentor

    Orbitas - as a place for an electron - exist regardless of whether they are occupied or not.

    It is a shortcut notation - replace [He] with configuration of the noble gas.
  4. Why is Helium needed? Is it the Boron itself hybridizes or it hybridizes together with He?
  5. Helium is not needed, the notation simply means the electronic configuration of He.

    So, instead of 1s2 2s2 2p1; as He is 1s2 you can write it as [He] 2s2 2p1. May not be so much of an advantage here, but in larger atoms like e.g. Gold, or Iodine having to write out lots of terms each time is prone to error.
  6. Borek

    Staff: Mentor

    Think about cesium. [Xe] 6s1 looks much more neat than 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s1, doesn't it? And they mean exactly the same.
  7. So the [He] is actually together with the dotted square, not the B on the left?

    And is the energy level of the hybrid orbitals lower than the 2p's? And higher than the 2s?
  8. Borek

    Staff: Mentor

    You can put it that way.
  9. How about its energy level?
  10. B has three 2p orbitals. And one 2s.
    Empty orbital doesn't hybridize.
  11. Where is its 1s?
  12. 1s2 - (or [He]) - closed shell.
    It can't hybridize. Too much energy gap between 1s and 2s.
  13. So you're saying that a B atom never has a 1s subshell? Even when it is an independent atom and not bonded to others?
  14. Borek

    Staff: Mentor

    No, he says that 1s2 exists, but doesn't matter when talking about hybrydization and can be safely ignored. But I agree that the original statement was lousy to say the least.
  15. How come boron has so many subshells when it has only five electrons?

    1s2 2s2 2p1 no?

    is the 1s2 empty?
  16. Borek

    Staff: Mentor

    Technically all possible subshells always exist, they are just not occupied in the unexcited atom.
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