1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data On p. 13, they present and discuss Table 1, summary scores for the test periods. At the bottom of the first column, they say that the "fall CBM WIF is 0.85 standard deviations below the mean." What mean are they referring to? What is the value of the mean? 2. Relevant equations None needed. 3. The attempt at a solution Here is the pdf: http://casenex.com/casenex/cecReadings/monitoringEarly.pdf (Go to page 13 on the paper) You may have to read several pages to get the context. I would be extremely grateful if someone helped me, I've been stuck wondering what mean they are talking to for an hour already. I thought I was missing something along the way, and I so I've re-read it again and again. The data collectors take a measurement of the fall CBM WIF measures once in fall and once in spring along with other criterion measures. Then they assess the two CBM measures for 20 weeks as well. I thought that there are two means being referred to in the second column on page 13. The average of the two fall CBM measurements and the two spring CBM measurements.