Here’s an interesting bit of research regarding how bacteria communicate through ion channels. It talks about biofilms which I understand as being thin films of bacteria that colonize the surface of teeth for example: The bacteria then communicate using what sounds like a 2 dimensional EM wave that propagates through this film: Have a read. Did I get that correct? http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/biologists_discover_bacteria_communicate_like_neurons_in_the_brain Paper here: http://biocircuits.ucsd.edu/pubs/articles/Prindle_Nature_2015.pdf Understood also that bacteria also communicate through the exchange of molecules. Thought this was interesting here: http://www.ted.com/talks/bonnie_bassler_on_how_bacteria_communicate.html Back to the paper regarding ion channels, my (rather weak) understanding of neurons (the article compares the method of communication used by these bacteria to that of neurons) is that they communicate through the local interaction between chemical and electrical synapses as opposed to using the more general EM field. Do any bacteria have any 'synapses' or similar structures? Do neurons use the EM field to some degree as well as synapses? What are the similarities? Differences? For that matter, what about chemical synapses? What are the similarities/differences? I realize the questions are rather broad. Feel free to provide short responses and post links to more in depth material.