• Ki Man
In summary, the conversation discusses the differences between lower and higher frequencies and how they interact with solid objects. It is explained that lower frequencies have less energy and are more likely to pass through objects, while higher frequencies have more energy and can easily "wizz" through. The concept of reflection and its relationship to electronic energy transitions is also mentioned. The conversation ends with a thank you from Claude for the explanation.
Ki Man
Hey guys, long time no see. I was flipping through a book about black holes and gravity when i saw a chart about different frequencies and I came up with a little thought that would be nice to have explained.

Why is it that lower frequencies (radio/microwave) and higher (x-ray/gamma ray) can pass easily through most solid objects but the visible/near-visible range is very easily reflected by most types of matter?

ex: shoot radio at a wall, it goes through, shoot light, it bounces off, shoot x-rays it goes through

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actually it depends on the material in the wall, obviously. as a rule of thumb lower frequences pass through more readily because they have a lower energy and thus are less likely to succesfully interact with the particles in the wall. on the flip side xrays are so powerful and energetic they just 'wizz' through. i say that in inverted commas because according to an ol german dude with cool hair the speed of all EM waves is constant.

reflection is actually a really cool area of physics, like edge physics. as far as i know reflection is an interaction and deformation of the electric fields of the EM wave and those generated by the electrons in the orbitals

Generally it is because photons that possesses optical frequencies match electronic energy transitions, which means that these photons will strongly interact with most materials, though this interaction is usually absorption, not reflection.

Claude.

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=] thanks guys

## 1. What are frequencies?

Frequencies refer to the number of times an event or phenomenon occurs within a given period of time. In science, frequencies are often used in the context of waves and vibrations, where they represent the number of cycles or oscillations per unit of time.

## 2. How are frequencies measured?

Frequencies are typically measured in hertz (Hz), which is equivalent to one cycle per second. This can be done using instruments such as an oscilloscope or frequency counter, or through mathematical calculations based on the period of a wave.

## 3. What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength?

Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional to each other. This means that as the frequency increases, the wavelength decreases, and vice versa. This relationship is described by the equation: wavelength = speed of light / frequency.

## 4. How are frequencies used in different fields of science?

Frequencies have many applications in various scientific fields. In physics, frequencies are used to study the properties of waves and determine the energy of particles. In biology, frequencies are used in genetics to analyze DNA sequences. In chemistry, frequencies are used in spectroscopy to identify the molecular structure of substances.

## 5. Can frequencies be harmful to humans?

Some frequencies, such as ultraviolet and x-rays, can be harmful to humans in high doses. However, the frequencies used in everyday technology, such as radio waves and microwaves, are not harmful. The potential harm of frequencies also depends on the duration and intensity of exposure.

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