1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data The part I'm having problems with is where the last two expressions in 4.13 are equated. Why is xtKx*equal to x*^tKx*? 3. The attempt at a solution xtKx* is an inner product and due to symmetry is equal to x*^tKx, but wouldnt equating x to x* mean every <x,y> = <x,x> = <y,y>? Many thanks if someone decides to help me out.