Hello, Suppose sinosodial AC and pulsed DC magnetic fields with equal rms are applied on animal cells in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. For the mean field strengths to be equal, the peak value of the square wave (with 50% duty cycles) must be sqrt. 2, which means that the maxiumum field strength of DC will be higher than that of AC. This will lead to a greater torque on the nanoparticles. My question is if the nanoparticles are near or attached to cell membrane, will the elastic stress on the membrane be responsible for more nanoparticle entering cell than AC field? I can predict such mechanism but I need reliable sources. Any piece of information is appreciated, Thank you. edit: Question2. If you know anything about magnetic fields affecting the permeability of cell membrane, please share.