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Metal sphere on a thread in a horizontal electric field

  • #1

Homework Statement



Charged metal sphere hanging on an isolated thread of negligible mass is put in a homogeneous horizontal electric field so that the thread makes a 45 degree angle with the el. field. What angle does the thread with the sphere close with the el. field after we remove 40% of the charge from the sphere?

Homework Equations



1. ##F_g=mg##
2. ##F_g=T \cdot \sin(45)##
3. ##F_{el}=T \cdot \cos (45)##

I have provided image of force diagram.

The Attempt at a Solution



I can substitute ##F_g## from equation 1 into equation 2 and get:
##mg=T \cdot \sin(45)##

Then I find expression for T in equation 3:
##T=\frac{F_{el}}{\cos (45)}##

and substitute it into second equation:
##mg=\frac{F_{el}}{\cos (45)} \cdot \sin(45)##
##mg=F_{el} \cdot \tan(45)##

I can express electric force as a product of electric field and charge of sphere:
##mg=q \cdot E \cdot \tan(45)##

I haven't gotten further than this. How do I show what happens with an angle when the charge is reduced 40%?
 

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Answers and Replies

  • #2
TSny
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I can express electric force as a product of electric field and charge of sphere:
##mg=q \cdot E \cdot \tan(45)##
This equation looks good. Note that your derivation would work for any angle, not just for 45 degrees. If ##\theta_2## is the angle you are looking for, how would you write your equation with 45 degrees replaced by ##\theta_2##?
 
  • #3
Well, I could substitute ##\Theta_2##:
##mg=q \cdot E \cdot \tan(\Theta_2)##
##\tan(\Theta_{2})=\frac{mg}{q \cdot E}##
##\Theta_2=\arctan \frac{mg}{q \cdot E}##

What do I do now? Do I just say that ##\Theta_2## is 60% of 45 degrees which is 27 degrees?
 
  • #4
TSny
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Well, I could substitute ##\Theta_2##:
##mg=q \cdot E \cdot \tan(\Theta_2)##
##\tan(\Theta_{2})=\frac{mg}{q \cdot E}##
##\Theta_2=\arctan \frac{mg}{q \cdot E}##
OK. Here ##q## is the charge corresponding to ##\theta_2##.

What do I do now? Do I just say that ##\Theta_2## is 60% of 45 degrees which is 27 degrees?
No. You have two equations, one for the initial charge ##q_1## and one for the final charge ##q_2##. Combine them to find ##\theta_2##.
 
  • #5
OK, than:

##\tan 45=\frac{m \cdot g}{q_1 \cdot E}##
##\tan \Theta_2=\frac{m \cdot g}{q_2 \cdot E}##

##q_1=q, q_2=q_1-40\%=q-0.4q=0.6q##


##\tan 45=\frac{m \cdot g}{q \cdot E}##
##\tan \Theta_2=\frac{m \cdot g}{0.6 \cdot q \cdot E}##

##q \cdot \tan 45=\frac{m \cdot g}{E}##
##0.6 q \cdot \tan \Theta_2=\frac{m \cdot g}{E}##

I equate the two equations:
##0.6 q \cdot \tan \Theta_2=q \cdot \tan 45##

##\tan \Theta_2=\frac{\tan 45}{0.6}##

##\tan \Theta_2=\frac{1}{0.6}##

##\tan \Theta_2=\frac{5}{3}##

##\Theta_2=59^{\circ} 04'##

I'm sorry for writing minutes the way I did. I couldn't find a proper code.
 
  • #6
TSny
Homework Helper
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OK. Good work.

My calculator gives the answer as a decimal number of 59.04o.
.04 degree is about 2 minutes.

Considering that the 45 degrees is given to 2 significant figures, it would probably be best to express the answer as 59o or maybe 59.0o.
 
  • #7
You're right. It's 2 minutes, and not 4 minutes. Thank you very much for helping me.
 

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