Recently, I've been interested in finding out the most cited science paper. The result can be found here, and is rather startling http://www.nature.com/news/the-top-100-papers-1.16224 It turns out the most cited science paper is: "Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent." by Lowry, Rosebrough, Farr and Randall. I doubt many people heard of this, despite it having a staggering 300,000 citations. The rest of the top 5 is also filled completely with biology lab methods. Very interesting outcome. But I am more interested in what people consider to be the best/most influential science papers or books. Obviously, such a list is highly subjective. But let's see what the PF users come up with. Every paper or book in STEM is allowed. So the fields can be physics, biology, mathematics, engineering, etc. The paper or book can be from all times, so it can go from the ancient Greeks, and the renaissance to cutting edge science. I'm very interested in the answers!