"New Materials"(new china industry),could this be the next bill gates($$$) industry?
New materials industry, one, materials and new materials to define
1. Materials and new materials definition:
Materials can be used directly to create useful objects, the material component or device. Its shape can be a solid, liquid, gas;
The new material is emerging or under development, and with traditional materials do not have outstanding performance and special features of the material; or adopt new technologies (technology, equipment), so that a noticeable increase in the performance of traditional materials or generate new features material; is generally believed that high-tech industries to meet the development needs of some of the key materials also belong to the scope of new materials.
With regard to materials and new materials industries, combined with China's industrial statistics standards:
"Material Industry" include:
(1) textiles; (2) oil processing and coking industry; (3) chemical materials and chemical products industry; (4) chemical fiber industry; (5), the rubber products industry; (6) plastic products industry; (7 ) non-metallic mineral products industry; (8) ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry; (9) non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry; (10) fabricated metal products; (11) medical material and medical products industry; (12) Electrician equipment and electronic components manufacturing.
"The new materials industry," including new materials and related products and technologies and equipment. Specific coverage includes: new material itself is formed by industry; new materials technology and its equipment manufacturing industry; technological upgrading of traditional materials industries. Compared with the traditional materials and new materials industries are high technology, research and development into high value-added products, higher production and strong international markets, as well as wide range of application, and good prospects for the development characteristics, the level of its R & D and industrial the scale has become the measure of a country's economic, social development, scientific and technological progress and an important symbol of national defense strength of countries around the world especially the developed countries attach great importance to the development of new materials industries.
2. The main category of new materials
High-tech and new materials as the basis and the precursor extremely wide range of applications, it is with information technology, biotechnology, along with the twenty-first century's most important and most promising areas. With the traditional materials, the new material from the structure, composition, functions and applications, such as a variety of angles and classify the different categories and nested between the cross-cutting.
There are traditional materials and new materials innovations and the introduction of new material composition, along with the development of high-tech and new materials with traditional materials industry is increasingly closely linked, industrial structure has shown the characteristics of horizontal proliferation.
Classification of new materials: In accordance with sub-field of application, generally classified as the new material the following categories:
2.1 Information Materials
Of electronic information materials and products supported by modern communications, computers, information networks, micro-mechanical intelligent systems, industrial automation and home appliances, and other modern high-tech industries. Electronic information materials, development of the industry scale and technology level, in the national economy has an important strategic position in is scientific and technological innovation and international competition of the most intense material areas. microelectronics materials in the next 10 to 15 years is still the most basic information materials, optoelectronic materials will become the fastest growing and most promising information materials. information materials can be divided mainly for the following categories:
Integrated circuits and semiconductor materials: silicon material as the main body, the new compound semiconductor materials and a new generation of high-temperature semiconductor materials is also an important part, but also high-purity chemical reagents and specialty electronic gases; Optoelectronic Materials: Laser materials, infrared detector materials, liquid crystal display materials, high-brightness light-emitting diodes, optical fiber materials, etc. fields; new electronic components materials: magnetic, electronic ceramic materials, piezoelectric transistor materials, information sensing material and high-performance packaging materials.
The current research focus and the cutting edge of technology, including flexible transistors, photonic crystals, SiC, GaN, ZnSe and other wide band gap semiconductor material represented by the third generation of semiconductor materials, organic display materials, and a variety of nano-electronic materials.
2.2 Energy Materials
Worldwide energy consumption continues to grow, 80% of its energy comes from fossil fuels, in the long run, needs no pollution and sustainable development of new energy to replace all fossil fuels, the future of clean energy, including hydrogen, solar energy, wind energy, nuclear fusion energy and other. solve the energy problem, the key is a breakthrough in energy materials, both to improve combustion efficiency in order to reduce resource consumption, and the development of new energy and use of renewable energy sources with the materials have a very close relationship.
Traditional sources of energy required materials: The main is to improve the energy efficiency, is now concentrated in order to develop super-critical steam generator sets and integrated gasification combined cycle technology, the material requirements of these technologies are very severe, such as engineering ceramics, the new channel materials, such as ; hydrogen and fuel cells: hydrogen production, storage and use of the necessary materials and technology, fuel cell materials, etc.; Green rechargeable batteries: nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries and high-performance polymer batteries, and other new materials; solar cell : polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, thin-film batteries and other materials; nuclear materials: the new nuclear reactor materials.
New materials, energy materials on the main categories including a special thin-film, polymer electrolyte, catalyst and electrode, advanced optical materials, specialty plastics and coatings spectrum, carbon nanotubes, metal hydride slurry, high-temperature superconducting materials, low-cost, low-power civil engineering materials, light, cheap, efficient insulation materials, light, strong, composite structural materials, ultra-high-temperature alloys, ceramics and composite materials, anti-radiation materials, low-active material, anti-corrosion and anti-stress corrosion cracking materials, machinery and anti-corrosion materials, such as plasma. forefront of current research and technologies, including high-energy hot hydrogen storage materials, polymer battery materials, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte material, polycrystalline thin-film solar cell materials.
2.3 Biological Materials
And life support systems of biological material is combined for the diagnosis, treatment or replacement of body tissues, organs or enhance its function material. It involves materials, medicine, physics, biochemistry and modern high-tech and many other fields, has become a major 21st century of the pillar industries.
Now almost all types of materials in the health treatment have been applied include metals and alloys, ceramics, polymers, composite materials and biomass material. Macromolecule of biological material is a bio-medical materials, the most active areas; metal bio - Clinical material is still the most widely used load-bearing implant material, titanium and its alloys, and Ni-Ti shape memory alloy is a hot research and development; inorganic biological materials in recent years, more and more attention.
At present, the international bio-medical materials research and development of main directions, one simulation of the human body hard and soft tissues, organs and blood, the composition, structure and function or functions carried out by bionic design and preparation, the second is to give the excellent biocompatibility of materials, , biological activity or life activity. on the specific materials, the main including drug controlled release materials, tissue engineering materials, biomimetic materials, nano-bio-materials, bio-active material, interventional diagnosis and treatment of materials, and absorption of bio-degradable materials, new artificial organs, artificial blood and so on.
2.4 Automotive Materials
Automotive timber material in the whole market share is small, but the technical requirements are high, high technological content and high added value of the three high product represents the industry's highest level.
Demand for automotive materials show the following features: lightweight with environmental protection is a major demand for the development direction; a variety of materials in automotive applications is changing the ratio, the main trend is a high-strength steel and ultra-high-strength steel, aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy , plastic and composite materials will have a larger increase in consumption, vehicle body structure material will tend to multi-material design direction. At the same time recycling of automotive materials, more attention has also been, electric vehicles, alternative fuel vehicles, special materials, and automotive functional materials The development and application has been continuously strengthened.
2.5 Nano-Materials and Technology
Nano materials and technologies will be the first 5 times to promote the rapid development in various fields of socio-economic leading technology of the 21st century will be the first 20 years of nano-materials and technologies critical period of development. Nanoelectronic instead of microelectronics, Naga workers instead of micro-processing, nano-materials instead of micron materials, nano-bio-technology instead of micron-scale bio-technology, this is not to man's will to objective laws.
Nano-materials and technology research and development is mostly basic research stage, such as nano-electronics and devices, nano-bio-high-risk areas, have not formed a large-scale industries. However, nano-materials and technology in the electronic information industry, bio-pharmaceutical industry, energy, industry, environmental protection and other aspects, the preparation and application of related materials will have a revolutionary impact ..
2.6 Superconducting materials and technology
Superconducting materials and technology is of strategic significance in the 21st century high-tech, widely used in energy, health care, transportation, scientific research and national defense and other major areas. The application of superconducting materials, the performance depends primarily on the material itself and its preparation technology .
At present, the low-temperature superconducting material has reached the practical level, high-temperature superconducting materials industry, technology has also made a major breakthrough, high-temperature superconducting tapes and mobile communications with high-temperature superconducting filter subsystems will soon be into the commercialization stage.
2.7 Rare Earth Materials
The use of rare earth elements rare-earth materials are excellent magnetic, optical, electrical and other properties to develop a series can not be replaced by superior performance of new materials. Rare-earth materials are widely used in metallurgical machinery, petroleum chemical industry, agriculture, light industry, electronic information, energy environmental protection, national defense and other fields, is the world's countries in the transformation of traditional industries, develop high-tech and defense of strategic materials essential cutting-edge technology.
These include: rare-earth permanent magnetic materials: it is the fastest-growing rare-earth materials, including NdFeB, SmCo and so on, are widely used in electrical, electro-acoustic, medical equipment, such as high-tech magnetic levitation train and the military-industrial areas; hydrogen storage alloys: mainly used in power batteries and fuel cells; Rare Earth Luminescent Materials: There is a new energy-efficient green light emitting materials with rare earth, high-definition, digital color TV sets and computer monitors with the rare earth luminescent materials, and special or extreme conditions, application of rare earth luminescent materials, ; Rare Earth Catalytic Materials: Development of an alternative focus on precious metal catalysts to reduce costs, improve performance and stability of anti-toxic properties; rare earth materials in other new applications: such as precision ceramics, optical glass, rare earth etching agent, rare earth inorganic pigments, etc. is also a higher rate, such as the rare-earth ceramics, rare-earth inorganic pigment.
2.8 new steel materials
Iron and Steel is an important base material, widely used in energy development, transportation, petrochemicals, machinery and electricity, light textile, medical and health, building materials, household appliances communications, national defense construction and high-tech industries, and has a strong competitive advantage .
Focus on the development of new iron and steel materials, iron and steel materials, high-nature. The direction of high-performance, long life, the quality has been refined and precise control of the organization to improve steel cleanliness and high uniformity develop.
2.9 new non-ferrous alloy material
Mainly include aluminum, magnesium, titanium and other light metal alloys, and powder metallurgy materials, high purity metal materials.
Aluminum: Includes a variety of new high strength and high toughness, high specific strength of high specific modulus, high strength corrosion resistant weldable, heat-resistant corrosion resistant aluminum alloy material, such as Al-Li alloy; magnesium alloys: including magnesium alloy and magnesium - Matrix Composites materials, ultra-light high plasticity Mg-Li-X Alloys, etc.; titanium materials: including the new medical titanium, high temperature titanium alloy, high-strength titanium alloys, low-cost titanium alloy, etc.; powder materials: products include iron-based, copper based automotive parts, refractory metals, carbide, etc.; high purity metals and materials: materials, the purity of direction towards a more purified, their impurity content up to ppb level, product specifications towards large-scale direction.
2.10 New Building Materials
New building materials mainly include new wall materials, chemical building materials, new thermal insulation materials, building decoration materials. The international trend toward environmentally friendly building materials, energy saving, multifunctional direction.
One trend is toward the glass functional, practical, decorative type, secure and environmentally-friendly five directions, including the original piece of glass surface modification of or finishing processing, energy-efficient low-emissivity (Low-E) and the solar control low-emissivity (Sun-E) film and glass; will also include energy-saving, environmental protection, new housing construction materials, and to meet the special needs of the special series of engineering and cement.
2.11 of new chemical materials
Chemical material in the national economy has an important status in the aviation and aerospace, machinery, petroleum industry, agriculture, construction, automotive, home appliances, electronics, bio-medical industry, and so plays an important role.
Of new chemical materials include materials of organic fluorine, organic silicon materials, high-performance fibers, nano-chemical materials, inorganic functional materials, etc.; nano-chemical materials and specialty chemicals coating is a research hotspot in recent years. Meticulous, dedicated, function and turned it into chemical materials, an important industry trends.
Eco-materials in the human knowledge that the strategic importance of ecological and environmental protection, and countries around the world path of sustainable development in the context proposed by the ecological environment is generally believed that the use of materials is a satisfactory performance at the same time been given excellent environment for the coordination of of material.
Such materials are characterized by low consumption of resources and energy on the ecological and environmental pollution, renewable utilization high, and from material manufacture, use, recycling of waste until the entire life process, in harmony with the environment. Main include: environmentally compatible materials, such as natural materials (wood, stone, etc.), imitation of biological materials (artificial bone, artificial device dirty, etc.), green packaging materials (green packaging bags, packaging containers), ecological building materials (non-toxic decoration materials , etc.); environmental degradation of materials (biodegradable plastics, etc.); environmental engineering materials, such as environmental restoration materials, environmental purification materials (molecular sieves, ion-sieve material), environmental alternative materials (non-phosphorus detergent additive), etc..
Eco-materials research focus and direction of development, including renewable polymer (plastic) design, materials, environmental coordination, evaluation of the theoretical system to reduce environmental load materials, new techniques, new technologies and new methods and new materials such as military .1.2.13
Military material to national defense science and technology, national defense forces of the strength and national economic development has an important role in promoting it is the material basis of weapons and equipment and technology leader is to decide an important factor in the performance of weapons and equipment, but also develop new capabilities and reducing weapons weapons life-cycle costs, to acquire and maintain a competitive edge weapons and equipment, the driving force.
With the rapid development of weapons and equipment played a supportive role in the development of materials technology has shown the following trends: First, composite: Adoption of the micro, meso and macro levels of composite materials greatly enhance the overall performance; second is multifunctional: Adoption of the material composition, organization, structure, optimized design and precise control, so that a single material with a number of functions, to simplify the structural design of weapons and equipment to achieve miniaturization, high reliability purposes; 3 is a high performance-oriented: the material to optimize overall performance, To improve the performance of weapons and equipment to lay the material foundation; four low-cost technology: low-cost technology in the materials area is a high-tech technology, weapons development and production of more and more important role.