What is Materials: Definition and 983 Discussions

A material is a substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an object. Materials can be pure or impure, living or non-living matter. Materials can be classified based on their physical and chemical properties, or on their geological origin or biological function. Materials science is the study of materials and their applications.
Raw materials can be processed in different ways to influence their properties, by purification, shaping or the introduction of other materials. New materials can be produced from raw materials by synthesis.
In industry, materials are inputs to manufacturing processes to produce products or more complex materials.

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  1. S

    Other Well Written Materials Science / Engineering Books?

    I would love to find a materials book that is comparable to Taylor's Classical Mechanics. Taylor's book is well written with good problem sets, and it's designed for undergraduates. I also like that it burrows into one subject for 300 pages instead of being a general textbook with 2000 pages.
  2. S

    What Materials Fields are Heavy in Math?

    Hello, I'm a materials engineering undergraduate student. I would love to combine math and materials, what fields will allow me to combine these two?
  3. Y

    What is the difference between Griv-Ex and G10 material?

    Hi I just want to know the difference between Griv-Ex and G10. How long can they last and what speed up the degradation? eg UV, heat etc. thanks
  4. Astronuc

    Co-free, High-Energy, Fast-Charging, Long-Lasting Li-Ion Batteries?

    https://phys.org/news/2024-01-cobalt-free-batteries-power-cars.html https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscentsci.3c01478 Co is a critical mineral with a vulnerable supply chain. Ideally, it would be a great benefit to reduce it's need and consumption. The authors state that they...
  5. D

    'Residence' time distribution function for a Pulse input

    Residence time distribution- the time an entering particle spends in a system before it leaves. The residence time of molecules in a system is measured using tracers. The response for a system is recorded for some type of perturbation. Consider $$ A+B \rightarrow C $$ and suppose we want to...
  6. jedishrfu

    B New Theory Explaining Why Certain Alloys don't change size when heated

    https://www.caltech.edu/about/news/some-alloys-dont-change-size-when-heated-we-now-know-why ...
  7. D

    Search for specific near infrared transparent materials

    Hello everyone, I am looking for a material with the following characteristics: - It must be machinable - be as thermally insulating as possible, and resistant to a temperature of at least 100°C - transparent to near-infrared light (~1µm wavelength) - relatively resistant to deformation, for...
  8. T

    How do Photochromic lenses work?

    Photochromic lenses are common in glasses, they stay transparent indoor, but get darken when exposed to sunlight. How does it work ?
  9. P

    Sources to study computational materials science

    Can you recommend me a source to self study computational materials science? I am currently doing an internship and want to study in my spare time for materials science. I will take a course named computational methods in materials science but I want to learn it earlier than that but I can't...
  10. DaveC426913

    We Bought a House (A materials question)

    Wooooo! It's a 5-level backsplit. Wife and I will be in back/basement, kids and grandkids will be in front/2nd floor. So, the first thing we're going to do is build a wall between the upper flat and the lower flat - where the railing is. The entrance to the left wll become a door. So, they...
  11. abdulbadii

    Low Heat/Thermal Conductivity Electric Conductive Materials

    What is/are the electric conductive material(s) which has/have the least heat/thermal conductive?
  12. D

    A Heat exchange in a thermal storage based on phase change materials

    Hello, I want to model a thermal battery based on phase change materials (PCM). It is a plate heat exchanger immersed in a PCM bath. The diagram is given in the attached file. I want to determine the temperature at each moment and from everywhere in the battery. The hypotheses are the...
  13. S

    Calculate the density of composite materials

    Hello Please help me. I'm not a chemistry student and I don't have a chemistry-related course, so please explain in a very simple way. Thank you. I have a composite composition that I only have the weight percentage of atoms and I need to calculate the density so that I can check the properties...
  14. Yossi33

    Engineering Mechanics of materials -- deformation problem

    Hi, i'm struggling with that problem , i need to find the distance that point N went down.My way of thinking is that the structure is twice not statically determined because of the beam MN and beacuse of the left support which is also unnecessary in order for equilibrium. My 2 equations of...
  15. osaplabs_sja

    A Can any thin materials protect a Mars spacecraft from gamma rays?

    Astronauts heading towards Mars (and hopefully return) will need protection against the harmful effects of gamma rays in space for this long trip. Apparently, much shorter trips have not caused enough bodily harm to be of much concern. However, a 6-month or longer trip might be a real problem. I...
  16. D

    I Elastic Constants for Natural Rubber

    Hi, Looking for the Elastic Constants for any rubber-like material such as Natural Rubber. It can be inorganic or organic. The constants I am looking for take the form of a fourth-rank tensor. I only need the first order elasticities, not the zeroth or higher (not Cij or Cijklmn.. just Cijkl)...
  17. H

    Physicists Doing Art With Birefringent Materials

    https://physics.aps.org/articles/v15/147 That looks pretty cool. If more artists find out about it it might catch on.
  18. N

    Effects of extreme pressure on materials

    This is a project I gave myself at work, really just to improve things. It didn't come from above but from myself. However I went the route of biological and computer sciences not engineering. Without going into excruciating detail essentially a plastic "tube" will be going into an oil well...
  19. Astronuc

    High Temperature and Very High Temperature Materials

    A family member shared an article about thermovoltaics being developed at MIT with support from National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). A new heat engine with no moving parts is as efficient as a steam turbine https://news.mit.edu/2022/thermal-heat-engine-0413 The article mentions that the...
  20. P

    Engineering Materials Science and Nanoengineering

    Does it have any career opportunities outside of academia? Metallurgical engineering is easily applicable and you can find jobs with it anywhere. But about nanoengineering bachelor's degree, what kind of jobs can I find?
  21. bbbl67

    I Do materials have a refractive index for radio waves?

    It's been stated that the index of refraction of materials varies with frequency throughout the EM spectrum. What are the index of refraction for various materials in the radio frequency?
  22. E

    Solvent Effects on Carbazole-Based Hole Transporting Materials

    Hello everybody , In my research study, i am focusing the interprete the effect of solvent on opticals propertie of carbazole based hole transporting materials ,In order to dissolve this materials in different Concentration of solvents ; I have been using Toluene , chlorobenzene and...
  23. R

    Relationship between diameter and elastic potential energy of a wire

    I think the answer is that the elastic potential energy will be a 1/16th of the original value. This is my reasoning: 1) If the diameter doubles, the cross sectional area is 4 times the original value. (from A= πr2). 2) F= stress/area. Force (load is the same). If cross sectional area...
  24. Vossi

    Materials used for Worm Wheels

    I'm trying to figure out the specific grade/code of Brass or Cast Iron used for Worm Wheels.
  25. shivajikobardan

    MHB Pretty good privacy materials needed

    I need materials to study pretty good privacy.I need how authentication and confidentiality is done explanations with a block diagram. I picked up a keyword “pretty good privacy” “authentication” “confidentiality” I searched the zlibrary website for text search. Downloaded lots of books, but...
  26. SBrownJC

    B Do materials surrounding magnets affect how superconductors levitate?

    I'm currently doing an experiment with magnetic levitation but I don't know if my independent variable will even affect my results at all. I am planning on building a rail of magnets and levitating a type 2 superconductor on it. I wanted to change the material surrounding the rail of magnets...
  27. M

    Mechanics of Materials — Torsional Stress on a Spinning Shaft

    Summary:: Torsional stress on freely spinning shaft? Hey guys, I’m having some confusion with a certain section of the “Torsion” chapter in my mechanics of materials book: “power transmission”. Please see the problem below. This is very easy to SOLVE (basically plug and chug with the...
  28. FirewallDaProto

    Quick question about Aluminum Nitride's conductivity

    Whats its thermal conductivity compared to copper? (as in x times worse than copper) also, How electrically insulate is it? I'm looking to see if i can use it to encase an entire motherboard in a giant heat sink for a future project where i want to try and cool the entire motherboard to subzero...
  29. N

    Mechanics of materials - shear flow in built up members

    Hello! I am new to mechanics of materials and I am very confused about the problem below. So the shear formula is: tau = VQ/It From the book (Hibbeler) I understand that Q is "y'A', where A' is the cross-sectional area of the segment that is connected to the beam at the juncture where the...
  30. dghnhahah

    Different Types of Hysteresis in Various Materials

    Summary:: My college assignment brief; Write a report in which you examine and describe the differences in the elastic, magnetic, and electric hysteresis experienced by the steel, polyurethane, and concrete materials respectively. The scenario: You work as a mechanical engineering for a marine...
  31. D

    Solid State Texts on Topological Effects/Phases in Materials

    I am looking to learn about these topological effects or phases in solids. More specifically, I'm trying to find a set of lecture notes or a textbook or some other text that do not shy away from discussing homotopy classes and the application algebraic topology to describe these materials. I...
  32. Gekko12

    I Application of failure criteria to viscoelastic materials

    I was wondering if someone can explain how failure criteria work when dealing with viscoelastic materials. I'm quite new to this, so I only know how they work with brittle and ductile materials. (not in too much detail either). And now that I'm at it anyway, if possible an explanation on...
  33. S

    A Alpha Stopping Power Database for High Z Materials

    That's about it. I've been trying to do the calculation manually with Bethe-Bloche without corrections in the energy range I'm interested in (1-10 MeV) for the highest Z material with data available for validation (Uranium), but I can't get a result that agree well with the database, so I'm...
  34. The Bill

    Thermal insulating materials suitable for making piston and cylinder?

    What materials would be suitable for a cylinder and piston that is thermally insulating, reasonably durable for low speeds and very slow cycle rates, and not be a carbon or silicon based polymer? I've been looking at manual lever operated espresso machines lately. Particularly ones that are...
  35. Kun-Kun

    What are the differences between ChemE and Materials Eng./Sciences?

    What are the differences between both of them. Which one is more in demand and pays better overall?
  36. Haorong Wu

    Classical Looking for simple materials for calculus of variations

    Hi, there. I have not systematically learned the calculus of variations. I would like to learn it now. Are there simple materials for the purpose of learning how to do the calculation in physics? No need for deeper consideration in mathematics. Is Mathematical methods for physicists by Arfken...
  37. Haorong Wu

    I Looking for materials about ensemble average

    Hello. I am looking for some materials related to the ensemble average. Specifically, suppose there is a function ##A(x)## satisfying a Gaussian white noise $$\left < A(x)A(x') \right > =A_0^2\exp \left ( -\frac 1 {L^2}(x-x')^2\right )$$ where the average is taken over an ensemble. Now I need...
  38. S

    Classical Waves books -- Looking for better textbooks to augment my class materials

    Are there any good textbooks about waves? Like Pain or French except written competently, devoid of mistakes and logical even axiomatic. Ambitious with strong math. Can be old. We were recommended to read Pain but that book is a joke and French is just a simplified version thereof. Problems are...
  39. T

    Computational project ideas for magnetic materials?

    For my end-of-semester project, I was tasked to investigate an aspect of magnetism/magnetic materials, to do some literature review on the topic, and code a mathematical model and display my results graphically. I couldn't find anything I wanted to do, so I asked the professor to assign me a...
  40. T

    Engineering Why is it expensive to recycle composite materials?

    I have read a document where it says that composite materials are expensive to recycle but did not explain why. However, I am searching and find only a few papers and answers.
  41. A

    Poisson ratios for Orthotropic materials (composites)

    I'm new to composite materials. I've studied mechanical engineering but I am actually usually involved in hydrodynamics (in which I've done my masters). However for a project we do fluid structure interaction with composites, and as these things go, you cannot get away with the 'black box'...
  42. kolleamm

    3d printing materials with different melting points?

    A 3d printer that could print metal and other materials would revolutionize everything. The only problem is that metals have a really high melting point, so if you try to get a metal hot enough to bind to the other metals in its vicinity it would probably destroy the bonds of the neighboring...
  43. T

    What materials produce higher levels of static electricity?

    A lot of people know the example of a carpet and a doorknob. You accidentally rub your foot to the carpet and then get a static shock after touching the doorknob. Why does carpet produce higher static electricity than for example hardwood or something. Is it because of the hairs? Is it because...
  44. H

    Phase lag of light in materials

    There are 5 fantastic videos in this website: http://www.alfredleitner.com/ He is a very good educator and it is also very good to see those authentic experiments and aparatus. Anyway, in the following one at exacly 8:00 minutes he says that the phase lag induced by the dipole is always 90...
  45. Urika

    MHB Materials and Manufacturing

    i) Use EduPack Level 2 Sustainability to find the Polymer materials that satisfy ALL of the following criteria: - Maximum Density permissible is 1800 kg/m3 - Maximum Operating Temperature must be at least 100°C - Yield strength (Elastic Limit) > 50 MN/m2 - Can be injection moulded From this...
  46. shk

    How Does Toughness Compare Between Brittle and Elastic Materials?

    I need some help with the question that I have attached. I think I should say that the beef burger is tough and brittle but the tooth wrenching is not tough but it's elastic . or maybe it's tough and elastic. basically the beef won't have plastic deformation but the tooth wrenching has...
  47. shk

    Properties of materials like rubber bands

    I appreciate some helps with this question. I understand that soft noodles is not as strong as calamari squid and breaks easily . I also know that that calamari squid does not have elastic behaviour since behaves like rubber band and it goes back to it's original shape after reloading. But I'm...
  48. Tony Hau

    Boundary conditions of linear materials

    The question is as follows: Solutions given only contain part a) to c), which is as follows: So I now try to attemp d), e) and f). d) The magnetic field of a uniformly magnetized sphere is: $$ \vec B =\frac{2}{3}\mu_{o} \vec M = \mu_{o}\vec H$$ $$\frac{2}{3}\vec M = \vec H$$ The perpendicular...
  49. Astronuc

    DOE ARPA-E, ULTIMATE—Ultrahigh Temperature Materials Program

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – The U.S. Department of Energy today announced $16 million in funding for 17 projects as part of Phase 1 of the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy’s (ARPA-E) Ultrahigh Temperature Impervious Materials Advancing Turbine Efficiency (ULTIMATE) program. ULTIMATE teams will...
  50. B

    Quenching Process Questions for Different Materials

    Hello friends, For example; While the carbon ratio in CK45 steel is between 0.42-0.50, the carbon ratio in ST-52 material is 0.22. Is the important factor in the quenching process the carbon content? In here, can we make quenching to CK45 and ST-52? In other words, which types of materials can...