Organic Chem - Oxidation and Reductions

In summary, the first problem involves a Grignard reaction with the formation of acetic acid. The second problem involves the reduction of an iminium ion to form isopropylamine using sodium cyanoborohydride.
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gabe1scott
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Homework Statement



Im having some problems with some oxidation and reduction mechanisms. I am not sure if I am doing them correctly.

Homework Equations



1. O=C=O + CH3-MG++I-

2. Acetone + NH4+, Na+ H3BCN

The Attempt at a Solution



1. I break one of the bonds from the oxygen and protonate it to give me a carboxylic acid. I am not sure if I dehydrate it to form 2-propanol.

2. I don't really know where to start with this one. I think the NH4 adds a hydrogen to the oxygen, and then the carbon nitrile attacks and forces off the OH to form water, leaving Propane substituted with a CN group.
 
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gabe1scott said:
1. O=C=O + CH3-MG++I-

2. Acetone + NH4+, Na+ H3BCN

1. The first one is a Grignard reaction. I've never thought of it specifically as a redox reaction, but I guess it is. Anyway, the methyl anion is highly nucleophilic and attacks the electrophilic carbon on CO2 to give acetate. Upon acidic workup, the organic product is acetic acid.

2. The second one requires you to know that sodium cyanoborohydride is a weak reducing agent (weaker than sodium borohydride). The combination of acetone and ammonium will give an iminium ion (the carbonyl C=O is replaced with a C=NH2+). The cyanoborohydride reduces this to an amine. So the final product is isopropylamine (2-aminopropane in IUPAC language).
 
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Related to Organic Chem - Oxidation and Reductions

1. What is oxidation and reduction in organic chemistry?

In organic chemistry, oxidation and reduction refer to reactions where there is a transfer of electrons between molecules. Oxidation is the loss of electrons, while reduction is the gain of electrons. These reactions are important in the synthesis and transformation of organic compounds.

2. How do you identify oxidizing and reducing agents in a reaction?

An oxidizing agent is a molecule that causes another molecule to undergo oxidation by accepting electrons. A reducing agent is a molecule that causes another molecule to undergo reduction by donating electrons. To identify these agents, you can look for changes in oxidation states or the presence of elements such as oxygen or hydrogen, which are often involved in oxidation and reduction reactions.

3. What are some common examples of oxidation and reduction reactions in organic chemistry?

Some common examples of oxidation and reduction reactions in organic chemistry include the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, the reduction of aldehydes or ketones to alcohols, and the oxidation of alkenes to form diols. These reactions are important in the production of pharmaceuticals, plastics, and other organic products.

4. How can oxidation and reduction reactions be controlled in a laboratory setting?

Oxidation and reduction reactions can be controlled in a laboratory setting by carefully selecting the reactants and conditions. For example, the use of specific catalysts or solvents can affect the rate and selectivity of these reactions. Additionally, controlling the temperature, pressure, and concentration of reactants can also influence the outcome of the reaction.

5. What is the significance of oxidation and reduction reactions in biological systems?

Oxidation and reduction reactions play a crucial role in biological systems, as they are involved in processes such as cellular respiration and photosynthesis. These reactions help to convert energy into a usable form for organisms and are also important in the synthesis of essential biological molecules, such as amino acids and nucleotides.

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