Oxidation Definition and 24 Discussions

Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: RED-oks or REE-doks) is a type of chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Redox reactions are characterized by the actual or formal transfer of electrons between chemical species, most often with one species (the reducing agent) undergoing oxidation (losing electrons) while another species (the oxidizing agent) undergoes reduction (gains electrons). The chemical species from which the electron is removed is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced. In other words:

Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule.
Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule (a reduction in oxidation state).Many reactions in organic chemistry are redox reactions due to changes in oxidation states but without distinct electron transfer. For example, during the combustion of wood with molecular oxygen, the oxidation state of carbon atoms in the wood increases and that of oxygen atoms decreases as carbon dioxide and water are formed. The oxygen atoms undergo reduction, formally gaining electrons, while the carbon atoms undergo oxidation, losing electrons. Thus oxygen is the oxidizing agent and carbon is the reducing agent in this reaction.Although oxidation reactions are commonly associated with the formation of oxides from oxygen molecules, oxygen is not necessarily included in such reactions, as other chemical species can serve the same function.Redox reactions can occur relatively slowly, as in the formation of rust, or much more rapidly, as in the case of burning fuel. There are simple redox processes, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide (CO2) or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), and more complex processes such as the oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) in the human body. Analysis of bond energies and ionization energies in water allow calculation of the redox potentials.

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  1. samy4408

    About oxidation and reduction in organic Chemistry

    We studied in chemistry that the concept of oxidation and reduction is the exchange of electrons between two chemical substance ,but when i started to study organic chemistry i saw that when we talk about for example the oxidation of a compound it can loss atoms and change his constitution...
  2. Physics lover

    Chemistry Application of Jones reagent

    I know that Jones reagent is a weak oxidant and can reduce primary and secondary alcohols and benzyl alcohol is primary,but then i remembered some exceptions,like fehling solution can not reduce aromatic compounds.So according to me Jones reagent can not reduce benzyl alcohol.Please tell me the...
  3. T

    Fuel/oxidizer preheating to a high temperature

    imagine you burn something, like H2 in O2. let's say you have a nice flame with a temperature T. for the sake of this discussion let's assume that T is 1000. what happens if you preheat both H2 and O2 to 1000 first? is the resulting flame temperature higher? does the flame look the same? what...
  4. K

    Redox titration

    Cl2(g) + 2I–(aq) -->I2(aq) + 2Cl–(aq) (reaction 1) [2S2O3^(2-)(aq) + I2(aq) --> S4O6(2-)(aq) + 2I–(aq) (reaction 2) Why isn't n(I2)(reaction 2)=2n(S2O3^(2-))(reaction 2). I don't see why this is wrong. <edit: remove size and italics>
  5. B

    Calculate E cell for the following reaction at 25deg celcius

    Homework Statement Calculate E cell for the following reaction at 25deg celcius 3 CU(s) + 2 MnO4-(aq) + 8 H+(aq) →2 MnO2(s) + 3 CU^2+(aq) + 4 H2O(l) Given: [CU^2+] = 0.010M, [MnO4-] = 2.0M, [H+] = 1.0M I’ve posted a picture of my work, if someone could just let me know if I answered the...
  6. B

    Calculate E cell for the following reaction at 25deg celcius

    Homework Statement 2 IO3−(aq) + 6 H+(aq) + 10 I−(aq) →6 I2(s) + 6 H2O(l) I didn’t want to re-type all of this up but I uploaded of picture of my work for this problem. I was just wondering if I completed it correctly and if not if someone could guide me in the right direction. Thank you!
  7. A

    Are the terminals of a Battery neutral?

    So I've been learning how batteries work. What I learned is that a battery consists of 2 pieces of metal both with different electronegativities. These metals react with an electrolyte. One metal (called the anode) is oxidized and has its electrons removed, leaving behind a positive ion which...
  8. Jr_Particle_Hunters

    Water splitting catalyst help please

    Hi there. We are working on a school science project to compare how different catalysts in water splitting affect the energy/voltage needed to carry out the process. One of our catalysts will be Co-Pi, which is created by adding Cobalt-nitrate to a .1M phosphate buffer solution during...
  9. alphaj

    Is this a redox reaction?

    Quick note: Sorry for dominating the homework help board, guys! But, I wanted to say thank you to everyone who replies to my excessive questions. This forum's input has become integral to me as I am in a position now where I can't go to my teacher for help because of the logistics of commuting...
  10. alphaj

    Oxidation reaction-which is oxidized?

    Homework Statement 2Ag2S(s) + O2(g) = Ag2O(s) + S(s) Which is being oxidized? Homework Equations N/a The Attempt at a Solution Reactants: Ag2S is neutral, with Ag having +1 charge and S having 2- charge. O2 is neutral Products: Ag2O is neutral, with Ag having a 1+ charge and O having -2...
  11. A

    Non-combustible exothermic oxidation of a Hydrocarbon

    I have 2 queries and would be great if someone can lead me to some specific answers - 1. Is it possible to oxidise a complex hydrocarbon like Ethanol or Gasoline in a non-combustible but exothermic reaction? 2. If this kind of oxidation is possible, what would be the best catalysts to achieve...
  12. Zeynel

    How do human cells oxidize?

    I read that cells in human body are continuously oxidized. Can you explain in layman's term what this means? Is it possible to explain cell oxidation withot reference to "electron loss." Because I cannot imagine visually how a cell can lose an electron or what that means.
  13. Wrichik Basu

    What is the difference between valence factor and n-factor?

    What is the difference between valence factor and n-factor for oxidants and reductants? Take ##H_2O_2## as an example. What is the difference between the n-factor and valence factor for this compound? Also, how do I find the n-factor for any oxidant or reductant?
  14. H

    Oxidation of iron and galvanised iron in bleach

    In a laboratory experiment I have tested plain carbon steel in a beaker of bleach (sodium hypochlorite), immersed for a week. The result is a magenta-coloured solution with a large amount of ferrous hydroxide deposits. Q1) I haven't been able to find anywhere anything that might be causing...
  15. G

    Can I get description of how heat is realized during fire?

    Hello. I've learn that fire is chain-reaction process when burning materials are surrounded by oxygen with enough amount and they're heated exceeding some ignition point. That point is nothing but the temperature above which oxidation between material and oxygen begins. Then during...
  16. MexChemE

    Diffusion -- Tarnishing of metal surfaces

    Homework Statement Problem 18B.13 from Transport Phenomena, BSL. Tarnishing of metal surfaces. In the oxidation of most metals the volume of oxide produced is greater than that of the metal consumed. This oxide thus tends to form a compact film, effectively insulating the oxygen and metal from...
  17. _Anthony_

    Variations in bubble persistance

    The apparatus consisted of a one gallon air tight clear plastic jug one quarter filled with ferrous chloride (uh, Fe(II)Cl ?), water and sufficient hydrochloric acid to complete the transformation. The remaining space was filled with oxygen at atmospheric pressure. When triggered a mechanism...
  18. M

    Cleaning copper connections for high precision instruments

    Hi all, Here's my first post with a question I've been trying to solve for a while. I work with electronic components of very high quality and we try to make all our connections using thin copper ribbons of various thickness. I have started cleaning my copper connections with a solution of...
  19. B

    Chemistry How to calculate number of moles of H2O2 oxidized

    Homework Statement How many moles of hydrogen peroxide will be oxidized by 0.0045 moles of potassium permanganate in acidic solution? I am unable to think of how you get started? Homework Equations [/B] n - m/mm The Attempt at a Solution I've balanced the equation for an acidic solution...
  20. N

    How do I calculate the cell potential?

    < Mentor Note -- thread moved to HH from the technical chemistryforum, so no HH Template is shown > I was given this problem: A voltaic sell uses the reaction 4Fe3+ + H2 --> 2Fe2+ +2H+. Find the cell potential when [Fe3+]=1.50 M, PH2=.50 atm, and [Fe2+]=.00100 M and the pH of both anode and...
  21. caters

    Stainless steel oxidizing

    I noticed on 1 of my stainless steel spoons that a film of Iron(II) oxide(which is a black rust) formed. I have been taught that stainless steel will not rust. So why would a stainless steel spoon be oxidizing?
  22. Elvis 123456789

    Is this a Redox Reaction?

    Homework Statement Determine the oxidizing agent, reducing agent, element oxidized, element reduced, # of electrons lost per atom, and # of electrons gained per atom. State if the reaction is not redox. 3FeCl2(aq) ------> 2FeCl3(aq) + Fe(s) Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution...
  23. D

    Oxidation - gain of oxygen?

    2NO + O2 -> 2NO2 "Oxidation of NO" So a reactant - 2NO doesn't seem to lose an electron, it only gains an additional oxygen atom. So, I guess, oxidation is also gain of an oxygen? ...
  24. C

    Validity of the Pauling Scale of Electronegativity?

    I propose the Pauling Scale is not valid in all circumstances, and other scales of electronegativity would do better to predict the behavior of electron density in molecules: Electronegativity seems to be poorly defined for such a widely used chemical property: a 'tendency' of an atom or...