What is Organic chem: Definition and 46 Discussions

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Study of structure determines their chemical composition and formula. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior. The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers, and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry includes hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) as well as compounds based on carbon, but also containing other elements, especially oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus (included in many biochemicals) and the halogens. Organometallic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon–metal bonds.
In addition, contemporary research focuses on organic chemistry involving other organometallics including the lanthanides, but especially the transition metals zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium and chromium.

Organic compounds form the basis of all earthly life and constitute the majority of known chemicals. The bonding patterns of carbon, with its valence of four—formal single, double, and triple bonds, plus structures with delocalized electrons—make the array of organic compounds structurally diverse, and their range of applications enormous. They form the basis of, or are constituents of, many commercial products including pharmaceuticals; petrochemicals and agrichemicals, and products made from them including lubricants, solvents; plastics; fuels and explosives. The study of organic chemistry overlaps organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, but also with medicinal chemistry, polymer chemistry, and materials science.

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  1. P

    Chemistry Draw the mechanism of the reactions of steps 1 and 2

    Hi everyone! There is a task that I can't solve. Can you explain me how I have to draw the full mechanism? Draw the mechanism of the reactions of step 1 and 2. Indicate the product before step 3. (in step 2 also TMG =Tetramethylguanidine is given and instead of the protecting group DMT was...
  2. samy4408

    Searching for a reliable resource to practice IUPAC nomenclature

    Hello, I just learned the bases of IUPAC nomenclature and I couldn't find a good and reliable resource for problems to practice. if you know one please share it with me . thanks.
  3. Yokoko

    Chemistry How do I form the product with alkylation and condensation?

    I don't really know how to begin. I've done alkylations by having two of the same compounds react with each other e.g. two aldehydes but never started out with dimethyl malonate. I was thinking I need 1,4 dibromobutane to form the cyclopentane ring but apart from that I'm clueless
  4. A

    Effect of a soluble volatile impurity on the boiling point?

    Hi everyone, just wanted to know how does a soluble, volatile impurity affect the boiling point of a liquid? I know it depends on the difference between the boiling points of the liquid and the impurity, but I'm afraid i still didn't get the point. Thanks
  5. alphaj

    Organic chem: draw this in line angle structure

    Homework Statement Draw this formula in line angle structure. CH3CH2OC(O)CH2CC(CH2)3CH(CN)CHO. Homework Equations None. The Attempt at a Solution I'm confused with the CC(CH2)3 part of the condensed formula. I knew I got it wrong the first time I drew it because I couldn't just tag three...
  6. I

    Organic Chem Nomenclature (need an expert)

    Homework Statement Need help naming these 2 molecules: Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I think they are: ethoxycyclohexane 5-chloro-2-ethenyl-4-iodobenzonitrile
  7. R

    Solubility of tartaric acid/sodium tartrate in high vs low pH

    Homework Statement So we did a lab in organic chemistry where we did a resolution experiment for enantiomers and in the separatory funnel we had sodium tartrate/tartaric acid left in the aqueous phase of the funnel. It asks why this compound is more soluble in high ph solutions as compared to...
  8. RoboNerd

    Chemistry Question about Molecule Polarity

    Homework Statement I have a methyl orange molecule. Then my problem says that "wool is a protein, a naturally occurring polymer made up of amino acids with ionized side chains. cotton is a naturally occurring polymer made up of glucose units with hydrophillic groups surrounding each glucose...
  9. N

    Quick Organic Chem: P & Q Structural Formulas + Q to R Conversion

    Homework Statement ______________Stgae 1 [/B] P:C3H6O -----> _________________Br2 in organic solvent Q:C3H6OBr2 Stage 2 -->R:C3H5Br3 1.What is the structural formula of P and Q respectively? 2.What is the reagents in the conversion of Q to R?? (1) Phosphorous tribromide liquid (2)...
  10. D

    Add Br2/HV to (S)-1,2-Dibromobutane: Optically Inactive Product

    If we add br2 / hv to (s)-1,2-dibromobutane. Where would the radical bromine go? The book hints that the product is an optically inactive substance. So I'm guessing that the bromine would go towards the carbon that has the bromine atom on it making 1,2,2-tribromobutane? Would appreciate...
  11. B

    Difficulties in Organic Chem. Lab

    Hi, this is my first post. I'm generally more of a blog/message board reader than a contributor, but there's really been something that has been eating away at me, making it difficult for me sleep at night. (Note: long post coming up) Last semester in Organic Chemistry I, I made a huge...
  12. R

    A Few Organic Chem Questions (Stereochemistry)

    I am currently learning about stereochemistry in my O-chem class. I just have a few questions that I were running through my head. I know there are a lot of questions here, but they're not HW-related at all; my prof. just taught the lecture and I have had these questions on my mind. 1. How...
  13. G

    Organic Chem - Oxidation and Reductions

    Homework Statement Im having some problems with some oxidation and reduction mechanisms. I am not sure if I am doing them correctly. Homework Equations 1. O=C=O + CH3-MG++I- 2. Acetone + NH4+, Na+ H3BCN The Attempt at a Solution 1. I break one of the bonds from the oxygen...
  14. C

    H NMR of unknown sample (organic chem)

    Homework Statement Last week in organic chem lab, we were provided with an H NMR spectrum of an unknown compound with the formula C7H5NO3. I'm not terribly good at analyzing these spectra, but I've managed to figure out that I'm looking at 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The only thing that's bothering...
  15. H

    Need help with organic chem class (ChemDraw etc.)

    I started doing organic chemistry lab a few weeks ago and the instructor is an evil bastard when it comes to marking lab reports. We've 2 reports to do per week and I spend at least 6 hours on each report but only manage to get 60%. I can't be wasting all this time on a single class. Are there...
  16. W

    Organic Chem - Identifying Functional Groups

    Homework Statement Hi all, i have to identify 5 samples (1,2,3 were solids, 4,5 were liquids) by classifying them as 1) Aliphatic or aromatic and 2) Carboxylic acid, amine (primary, secondary, tertiary) or ammonium carboxylate We did a burn test on the solids, tested solubility in water...
  17. N

    Answer: Name Organic Compound: "Pun" Benzene Ring

    This is for a friend: The worksheet says: Name the following comounds: It has a picture, which is a benzene ring with 2 PhD groups off the 1 and 2 positions. Is also says "THis one is a pun. See if you can figure it out!" Thanks, nkk
  18. C

    Organic Chem 1- (S) vs. (R)

    Homework Statement A question on a pretest asks me to name this. I know it's either (1R,2R) or (1S,2S)1,2-Cyclopentanediol because the OH's are facing in opposite directions, but I'm not sure how to figure out if the OH's are S or R 2. The attempt at a solution I somewhat have an...
  19. C

    Organic Chem [Napthalene and benzoic acid]

    Hi guys, I've got a question which i couldn't solve. Both napthalene (two benzene ring join together) and benzoic acid are aromatic compounds which exist as white solids. Based on their physical ahd chemical properties, describe how you could separate the components of a mixture of these...
  20. O

    Distribution coefficient problem for Organic Chem

    Homework Statement When 100 mL of an aqueous solution containing 1.0 g of caffeine is extracted with 10 mL of chloroform at room temperature, 0.5 g of caffeine is transferred to the chloroform layer. Calculate the distribution coefficient of caffeine between chloroform and water at room...
  21. P

    Organic Chemistry Q&A: Boiling Pts, Haloalkanes & Tests

    Hello. I have a couple of questions. Why are the boiling points of alkenes lower than alkanes? My thinking: something with van der waas forces?. Not sure. Why do haloalkanes have higher boiling points than alkanes? My thinking: dipole-dipole forces? What is an experiment that can...
  22. F

    Should I take Organic Chem?

    Hello, I am a physics undergrad...getting ready for my final semester this summer. I have to take a chemistry class (actually, anything above a first General Chemistry class). It just so happens that the ONLY such Chem class they offer (small school) during my final semester is Organic...
  23. A

    Organic Chem: Benedict's test and acids - false positives?

    Since Benedict's test is testing for the presence of a reducing agent (in the form of a carbohydrate), would that not mean it would give a false positive if acid was present (i.e. is acid not considered to be a reducing agent, it being a proton donor)?
  24. E

    Organic Chem Drugs and Med Experiments

    Hi, I am supposed to design 2 experiments for my senior year Chem class. Right now I cannot think of anything that is interesting, relatively advanced but at the same time at a high school level (its only a design lab so I can include advanced equipments). Topics that interest me the...
  25. H

    Organic Chem- Mechanism Question(Oxidation of Glycol)

    Homework Statement Write a detailed mechanism for the following reaction: Attached picture Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution Okay, I know this is PART of the mechanism for the oxidation of a glycol by periodic acid which causes cleavage of the C-C bond between the...
  26. M

    Compound A: Does Bromide React with Propanol or Propanal?

    I was wondering does bromide react with propanol or propanal at all? Also, what answers do people get for this question, i say it either propanol or propanal as i don't know if either reacts with bromide and both would be a suitable answer. The question is: Compound A has a molar mass...
  27. E

    Organic Chem - Hydrocarbon Naming

    Homework Statement Name the following compound: CH3CH2C(CH3)2CH(CH2CH3)CH2CH2CH3 It's an alkane (Is there a way to see that it's an alkane when it's in this format?) Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I really have no idea where to start. I can name compounds...
  28. E

    Organic Chem Synthesis Help - Struggling to Get Started

    We've been doing syntheses for a little bit in class and I just can't get these. I'm having trouble taking the final compound and figuring out how to synthesize it from the starting compound(s). I feel like I'm better using reverse synthesis but I'm still getting stumped on that. I just can't...
  29. M

    Organic chem q on breathalyzer

    If a person drank methanol, they would go blind, and their breathalyser analysis (in units of mg/100 mL blood) would be in error. Its reading would be?
  30. S

    Organic Chem: Energy Barriers to Rotation

    I have a lab question that I'm stuck on. For your assigned molecule evaluate the energy barrriers to the rotation: from anti to gauche from gauche to gauche from gauche to anti I have data/graph of steric energy vs. dihedral angle of 1-chloropropane, but I don't know how to use...
  31. G

    Organic chem, resonance structure

    Homework Statement Are these two structures resonance? if not why not? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I drew these resonance forms myself, but the answer book didnt' have this resonance structure in its answer and i wanted to know if this indeed is a...
  32. R

    Organic Chem - Resonance Structures #2

    [SOLVED] Organic Chem - Resonance Structures #2 Homework Statement Trying to figure out this resonance structure...Draw the lowest energy alternative.. http://img162.imageshack.us/my.php?image=553562cu7.jpg The Attempt at a Solution ive been trying to move the upper double bond...
  33. B

    How much of General Chemistry is covered in Organic Chem?

    Hi everyone (me again), I am currently in my first year Chemistry course, s its really general in the sense that we are covering broadly about every topic in Chemistry (except for the specialized ones). Now we just started organic chemistry and I noticed not a lot of math is involved, so I...
  34. F

    Double checking organic chem mechanisms

    Hello, I need to make sure I understand some of the reactions correctly... For example: CH2OHCH3 in H+ will give us CH2=CH2. I would think that here the H+ bonded with the OH resulting in H2O (a leaving group), but I am not sure what happens to the other leaving H. In RC≡CR' in Na/NH3...
  35. S

    Ur opinion on organic chem

    we ofen hear the terms organic, natural and chemical in the media. Organic and natural are usually used to imply that a product is "healthy" and/or "environmentally friendly" while chemical often implies negative implications for health and for the environment. In your opinion are these...
  36. P

    Organic Chem - Synthesis of alcohols

    After drawing the 8 alcohols with the formula C5H11OH, I'm asked to "Describe how they are formed and give two uses for this type of alcohol." The only example in my text for this is the hydration of an alkene which, at a glance, wouldn't make sense for 2,2-dimethyl 1 propanol. Is this one...
  37. B

    Quick Organic Chem Nomenclature Question

    Homework Statement I am to draw a structural diagram of 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptyne. 2. The attempt at a solution ----------CH3 CH=C-CH2-CH-CH2-CH2-CH3 ---CH3 I tried just using spaces but it wouldn't indent them so I used hyphens. Now, I'm fairly certain my answer is correct (one of...
  38. G

    Organic Chem- acid catalyzed reation

    Hey can anyone help me with this question? What is the major product from the acid-catalyzed hydration of 3-methyl-2-pentene? a. 3-methylpentane b. 3-methyl-1-pentanol c. 3-methyl-2-pentanol d. 3-methyl-3-pentanol e. 3-methoxypentane Would the answer by D? My reasoning is that when...
  39. P

    Organic chem. study guides?

    Only three weeks into organic chemistry I, and I'm already feeling hopelessly confused. Can anyone recommend a good study guide or book to help clarify the basics, and explain the big picture? Thanks!
  40. C

    Can Organic Chem Improve Existing Products for Health and Environment Solutions?

    Hey, I have a question which asks me to provide two examples of how organic chem can be used to improve existing products and therefore provide solutions to newly identified health or environment problems. One example is unleaded gasoline, instead of leaded. What are some others? I've...
  41. B

    Quick organic chem question\

    What is an "organic functional group" ? What relation does it have towards pH ?
  42. S

    Did anyone actually enjoy organic chem?

    Well, did you? If so, why?
  43. V

    Polymerization (Organic Chem)

    Hi, I have done simple polymerization but none like this. Can you please help me on this question. What would be the structure of the polymer produced by the polymerization of (see attached picture) Draw 3 repeating units. Thanks so much
  44. A

    Basic Organic Chem Problem

    well i have a really simple question about organic chemistry if someone could help me it wil be nice. Q. why is 2-bromocyclohexanal more easily hydrated as compared to cylohexanal. Q. Why are 3 Degree alcohols more basic the 1 degree alcohol. Q. Why we add finely divided platinium in...
  45. A

    Preparing Alcohol from Bromobenzene and 1-Butene | Solomons Organic Chem

    Well i am having problem prepearing this alcohol from bromobenzene and 1-butene please help.This question is from Solomons organic chem.