What is Organic: Definition and 446 Discussions

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Study of structure determines their chemical composition and formula. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior. The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers, and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry includes hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) as well as compounds based on carbon, but also containing other elements, especially oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus (included in many biochemicals) and the halogens. Organometallic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon–metal bonds.
In addition, contemporary research focuses on organic chemistry involving other organometallics including the lanthanides, but especially the transition metals zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium and chromium.

Organic compounds form the basis of all earthly life and constitute the majority of known chemicals. The bonding patterns of carbon, with its valence of four—formal single, double, and triple bonds, plus structures with delocalized electrons—make the array of organic compounds structurally diverse, and their range of applications enormous. They form the basis of, or are constituents of, many commercial products including pharmaceuticals; petrochemicals and agrichemicals, and products made from them including lubricants, solvents; plastics; fuels and explosives. The study of organic chemistry overlaps organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, but also with medicinal chemistry, polymer chemistry, and materials science.

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  1. T

    Does Resonance Occur in Nitrobenzene Despite Having One Pi Bond?

    "My teacher had mentioned that resonance would occur here due to the presence of a positive charge if benzene is attached. However, if we consider two bonds without breaking them, there will be one pi bond. So, will there be no resonance due to it?"
  2. K

    Preparing for Grad School: A Organic Chemistry Review

    I’m starting my PhD in Organic Chemistry this Fall. I want to review all of undergraduate Organic Chemistry and I’m trying to develop a plan of attack. I did alright in lectures but not perfectly and did quite well in labs. I don’t want to be bombarded in grad school and want to have a proper...
  3. MichaelBack12

    Studying Preparing for Organic Chemistry: Tips for Reviewing Inorganic Chemistry Concepts

    Summary: What’s the best way to review inorganic chem in preparation for OC. Assume zero recall on basic college chem. Are there study guides, online courses, etc. for this specific purpose?
  4. samy4408

    About oxidation and reduction in organic Chemistry

    We studied in chemistry that the concept of oxidation and reduction is the exchange of electrons between two chemical substance ,but when i started to study organic chemistry i saw that when we talk about for example the oxidation of a compound it can loss atoms and change his constitution...
  5. T

    Mars - Igneous Rock, Exposed to Water, and with Organic Material

    A good candidate for the sample retrieval mission. https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/nasa-s-perseverance-mars-rover-makes-surprising-discoveries
  6. Vernii

    Nomenclature of organic compounds

    It is very important to recognize that, in general, the rules of the nomenclature of organic compounds are written in terms of classical valence bonding and do not imply electronic configurations of any kind. [Mentor Note -- Representative link added below]...
  7. SpectraPhy09

    Chemistry What is the basicity trend of organic compounds?

    I think the correct ans should be c (i.e C>D>A>B ) but its given d in my textbook( There can be a error also but I'm sure) I think C should have the highest basic strength since Hybridisation of N in this is Sp3 so it has the least electronegativity so it can donate its lone pair easily Then it...
  8. P

    Having trouble deducing 4 organic structures (High school exam qn)

    Summary:: Please see picture below The dotted line at Test 3 means to continue using the above solution, and add NaOH with the teat pipette. The dotted line separating tests 3 and 4 should be a hard line, which means to use a fresh sample of FA10 and perform the test. It is also known that...
  9. BWV

    Don't waste your money on organic food

    Because you know, science. Nitrogen is nitrogen whether it comes from a factory or a bovine posterior, and ‘natural’ insectides can be every bit as toxic as ‘artificial’ ones not to mention reducing crop yields but people have weird purity taboos around food and organic is kosher/halal for...
  10. M

    How to calculate the electrical power output using the Organic Rankine Cycle?

    Basically this would be a closed loop geothermal system for electrical power generation. The system would consist of 2 Horizontal Wells connected creating a U-shaped closed loop cycle using thermosiphon effect, with constant recirculation. It's not really a conventional geothermal power...
  11. Mayhem

    Studying Advice for success in organic chemistry ....

    ... with the intention of going into novel drug synthesis. It might be a bit of a reach to ask this on a physics forum, but I see chemists among us, so I guess this is as good as any. To those of you with experience in the field, what makes a good organic chemist? What makes a good medicinal...
  12. I

    Memorizing Organic Chemistry: Structures, Reactions & Tips

    For organic chemistry, what is important to memorize when I am reading a textbook? Should I memorize the structures and names of different organic compounds when they are described as examples? Or is it more important to memorize the organic reactions? Also, does anyone have any tips on how to...
  13. Adesh

    What will be the product of this organic reaction?

    Summary:: I'm always unable to find the products of a chemical reaction. No Matter how much concept I study I can't ever get products from reasoning. Here is the question: What is the major product of this reaction? . OPTIONS : MY ATTEMPT : First of all I can see that in...
  14. K

    Is common dishwashing detergent organic or inorganic?

    I want to add some diluted dishwashing detergent to a bottle for spraying cockcoach, the bottle is claimed to degrade with organic solvent. Is dishwashing detergent organic?
  15. Frigus

    Stream distillation-purification of organic compounds

    when we transfer water vapours from steam generator isn't it like that the pressure of atmosphere around the organic mixture will increase so we have to boil the organic mixture more so as to make equal the pressure of atmosphere which is water vapour pressure + pressure of atmosphere is equal...
  16. cookiemnstr510510

    Most acidic proton: first semester organic chemistry

    Hello All, I have attached my questions with pictures in attached photos. Look at screen shot 46 first then screen shot 47. I am having trouble ranking acidic protons. In my Organic book it has the order of: 1)Charge 2)Atom Type 3)Hybridization 4)Resonance 5)Induction Things I know: S is able...
  17. NoahCygnus

    What is the IUPAC name of this organic compound?

    Well I have two possible answers, it's either 1-(cyclopent - 1', 4'- dienyl) methyl ethan-1-ol or 1-methyl - 1 - (cyclopent-1',4'-dienyl) ethan-1-ol. Unfortunately the answer wasn't provided in the textbook.
  18. KristinaMr

    What Happens to Bromines in a Double Bond in Organic Chemistry?

    I think that the double bond would be broken in some way but what happens to the two bromines? do they remain in the ring? (or does HBr forms? is it possible?)
  19. R

    A Re-exciting organic scintillator

    I've attached an image from the book "nuclear physics" by John Lilley. It says "in only one case is the restulting photon energy sufficient to cause re-excitation". My question is what is this one case? I recall my lecturer saying only decay to S01 is sufficient to cause re-excitation, but I...
  20. Logic hunter

    What is acet in organic chemistry?

    What does it mean and why do acetophenone and acetic acid have it in their name ?
  21. jim mcnamara

    News Is organic food really linked to a lower risk of cancer?

    This thread is about cancer risk and organic food consumption - reporting on it mostly. USA today: (drive by journalism?) https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2018/10/23/eating-organic-food-may-prevent-cancer-french-study-suggests/1737791002/ Commentary from JAMA (a critique)...
  22. C

    IUPAC Names of Organic compounds (3)

    Homework Statement Name the following alcane according to the IUPAC rules: Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Thank you for helping me! Cro
  23. C

    IUPAC Names of Organic compounds (2)

    Homework Statement Name the following compound according to the IUPAC rules: Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Help me with the answer, please!
  24. C

    IUPAC Names of Organic compounds

    Homework Statement Name the following compound according to the IUPAC rules: Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Comment on my attempt, please.
  25. G

    Should I retake Organic Chemistry 2? Got a C-

    I was wondering if I should retake this course for a better grade. I got numerous responses from the colleges I am interested in for grad school. Probably will be taking Advanced Organic Chemistry as an advanced elective. If they have other courses that are offered like instrumental analysis I...
  26. DrClaude

    I Organic molecules found on Mars

    NASA Curiosity rover hits organic pay dirt on Mars Scientific article: Organic matter preserved in 3-billion-year-old mudstones at Gale crater, Mars
  27. BillTre

    Methane and Organic Molecules on Mars

    Curiosity has found seasonal occurrences of methane and some organic molecules on Mars. Both or possible indicators of carbon based life processes, but can have other non-biological explanations. Methane has been intermittently found previously on Mars. However, lacking a continuous long term...
  28. M

    Markovnikov Addition of HI to 2-Methyl-2-Butene: Clues and Possible Products

    Homework Statement The expected Markovnikov addition product of HI to 2-methyl-2-butene is? 2. The attempt at a solution a. 1-iodo-2-methylbutane b. 2-iodo-2-methylbutane c. 2-iodopentane d. 3-iodo-2-methylbutane Relevant equations Can someone give me some clues ?
  29. M

    Which Pairs of Substances Are Isomers?

    Homework Statement Which of the following pairs of substances are isomers? Homework Equations a. 35Cl and 37Cl b. Hexane and benzene c. Butane and methylpropane d. Diamond and graphite The Attempt at a Solution Which one is right ?
  30. jishnu

    Organic chemistry -- What is the best possible way to learn all the reactions?

    What is the best possible way to learn all the reactions in organic chemistry, where should one start, what are the fundamental topics to be covered and remembered all throughout for building up a great strong base in this part of chemistry?
  31. Muhammad Danish

    Organic Chemistry, Hydrocarbons

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution C=C double bonds means that it is not an Alkane because an Alkane is saturated hydrocarbon. So the answer should be from A, B or C.
  32. axer

    A diol - Question about this organic commpound

    5-methylheptane1,4-diol. I couldn't find where can I start learning this organic compound? I don't have access to any books to refer to so I'm wondering which lesson can I find this compound as an example? And I've never seen a compound with a diol. Thanks
  33. BWV

    Organic food is a 'deceitful, expensive scam'

    "Plant pathologist Steven Savage of the CropLife Foundation analyzed the data from the https://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2012/Online_Resources/Organics/index.php, which reported various measures of productivity from most of the certified organic farms in the nation, and compared them to...
  34. C

    Understanding the Arrow Notation in Organic Chemistry Elimination

    Can anyone help me with this ? What does the arrow mean ? Is it cis or trans,the base is small so it should be an E2 elimination with zaitsev product.Though I think it may be due to the beta hydrogen being unavailable,but I do not know whether the arrow means from the upper or lower /cis trans...
  35. C

    Identifying the Source of Organic Chemistry Problems: A Scientist's Perspective

    Hello ! I am preparing for chemistry olympiad,and my friend gave me this exercise in organic chemistry,but he won't tell me what book this is from can anyone help identify what book /problem collection this is ? (It has got some nice problems,at least higher than solomons organic chem) Thanks in...
  36. Natalie456

    Organic Chemistry: Alkenes and Diazomethane

    I'm having difficulties figuring out where the new carbon-carbon bond would form. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thank you!
  37. I

    Organic Chemistry Reaction Question

    Homework Statement What product(s) does this reaction produce: Acetone + diethylamine Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution That is what I got, but the answer is N,N-dimethylethanamide. Can someone please explain why?
  38. C

    Organic chemistry - Diels Alder reaction

    Homework Statement What is the product of this reaction: p-methylbenzyn + 1,3-butadien? Homework Equations C6H4CH3 + C4H6 The Attempt at a Solution a bicyclic ring is formed?
  39. alphaj

    Are open-air distillation and simple distillation the same?

    Homework Statement There really is no problem for this. I am just writing my procedure for orgo lab and I haven't don't any distillation before. I tried googling "open-air" distillation to see if it was equivalent to simple distillation, but I can't seem to get a straight answer. Homework...
  40. I

    Organic chemistry acetal reaction help

    <Moderator's note: Moved from a technical forum and thus no template.> OChem Question: My Answer: Not sure if this is correct. Anyone?
  41. alphaj

    Organic chem: draw this in line angle structure

    Homework Statement Draw this formula in line angle structure. CH3CH2OC(O)CH2CC(CH2)3CH(CN)CHO. Homework Equations None. The Attempt at a Solution I'm confused with the CC(CH2)3 part of the condensed formula. I knew I got it wrong the first time I drew it because I couldn't just tag three...
  42. DrSteve

    Programs Is a 3.4 GPA enough for a PhD in Organic Chemistry?

    Hi all, I know that some you have chemistry backgrounds (mine is in nuclear physics), so wanted to pose a question for a friend who is a chemist and is thus not on this site. He has a degree in biology, with emphasis on synthetic organic chemistry. His overall GPA was ~ 3.2 (3.4 in major). He...
  43. Sveral

    Resonant frequency of Volatile organic compounds

    Hello , could someone tell me ,where to find Resonant frequency of the chemical bond of the following Volatile organic compounds: Propene,Toluene,Benzene,Ethylbenzene. Thanks in advance .
  44. Eureka99

    Electronic transition in organic compounds

    Hello everybody :) I have a problem understanding the different types of pi -> pi * transition of organic compounds. I can't understand what's the difference between K-band, B- band, and E-bands, and I cannot find any explanation on the internet. Also I don't understand why benzene has two E...
  45. Lei

    How to control turbine in Organic Rankine Cycle system

    I am currently working on turbine design for small scale ORC system to produce power from low-enthalpy heat source. In ORC, turbine inlet pressure and flow rate are controlled by pump, and turbine inlet temperature is determined by evaporator when the flow rate of refrigerant and enthalpy of...