B Possibility of Black Hole research

Hey,

If we take a hypothetical blackhole with the mass of thirty billion suns which has the schwarzschild radius of roughly the orbit of the venus and let a spaceship fly into it, would it be possible for the spaceship to do some reseach on the physical nature of the singularity and then somehow fly out of it again or is the space around it while it is in the black hole always too contorted so that there is no possibility of escape? Tidal power lessens the farther you are from the singularity (is that right?), so if we throw all possibility overboard: Is there a hypothetical mass limit when a stellar body is able to (by the means of external energy) escape the event horizon again if he crosses it once? A blackhole with the mass of trillions, maybe zillions of stars?
Have a lovely day,
Marshall
 

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Once through the event horizon, there is no escape.
 
Excuse my question, but why? Wait, it's not the tidal spaces that we are battling, it's space itself, right?
Then my followup question: Is there a hipothetical blackhole with enough mass that a spaceship could just chill out at the borders of the event horizon without being ripped apart by tidal forces?
 

Orodruin

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Well, one might consider it as a definition of an event horizon of a black hole.
I would go as far as saying that it is the definition of the event horizon.
 
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it's not the tidal spaces that we are battling, it's space itself, right?
No, it's spacetime. Once you are inside the black hole, moving into the future is the same thing as moving towards the singularity. And there's no way to avoid moving into the future.
 
The Schwarzschild radius of the Sun is 3 kilometers. The Schwarzschild radius of 30 billion suns is 90 billion kilometers, which is 1,000 times the orbital radius of Venus.

https://arxiv.org/abs/0705.1029

90 billion kilometers is 9 * 10^13 meters. Divide that by the speed of light 3 * 10^8 m. It is 300,000 light seconds, or over 3 light days.

The formula given in the reference gives you a maximum time of 3.14 / 2 * 3 days = 5 days to reach the singularity.
 

Ibix

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The formula given in the reference gives you a maximum time of 3.14 / 2 * 3 days = 5 days to reach the singularity.
15##\mu##s per solar mass is my rule of thumb (derived from the paper you linked). Note that this is a maximum survival time - no path has more proper time from horizon to singularity, and a lot have less.
 
Hey,

If we take a hypothetical blackhole with the mass of thirty billion suns which has the schwarzschild radius of roughly the orbit of the venus and let a spaceship fly into it, would it be possible for the spaceship to do some reseach on the physical nature of the singularity and then somehow fly out of it again or is the space around it while it is in the black hole always too contorted so that there is no possibility of escape? Tidal power lessens the farther you are from the singularity (is that right?), so if we throw all possibility overboard: Is there a hypothetical mass limit when a stellar body is able to (by the means of external energy) escape the event horizon again if he crosses it once? A blackhole with the mass of trillions, maybe zillions of stars?
Have a lovely day,
Marshall
The reason your spaceship can't escape once inside the event horizon is because it would need to be moving faster than the speed of light in order to cross back out. So while you're right that the tidal forces are less for a black hole that is massive enough, the spacetime within the event horizon is what prevents you from leaving once you've crossed over. What's more, inside the event horizon, no signal from any other body can ever reach you( a condition known as "spacelike light cones" among physicists) so there's absolutely no possibility of being able to do any research whatsoever anyway!
 
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inside the event horizon, no signal from any other body can ever reach you( a condition known as "spacelike light cones" among physicists)
I have no idea where you are getting this from, but it's wrong. It is perfectly possible for objects inside the horizon to exchange light signals. There are limitations on it due to the spacetime geometry, but that's true everywhere in any spacetime, and such limitations have nothing whatever to do with "spacelike light cones" (light cones by definition are null surfaces, not spacelike).
 
What if two black holes are spirally in towards each other? Could you hypothetically fly between them in such a way that the gravity on both sides net to zero? Or dip into into one BH event horizon and then allow the presence of the second BH to allow u to escape? Or possibly waiting right before they collide when a portion of their combined mass is transformed into gravitational wave energy does the event horizon shrink?
 
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Could you hypothetically fly between them in such a way that the gravity on both sides net to zero?
In the sense that you would stay equidistant between them, yes. But you would still most likely be trapped inside the new hole that the two spiraling in holes merged into.

Or dip into into one BH event horizon and then allow the presence of the second BH to allow u to escape?
No. Once you're inside the horizon, you can't escape. There actually is only one horizon in spacetime terms; it just looks like a pair of trousers instead of a cylinder, heuristically speaking.

Or possibly waiting right before they collide when a portion of their combined mass is transformed into gravitational wave energy does the event horizon shrink?
Again, once you're inside the horizon, you can't escape. Also, gravitational wave emission doesn't shrink the horizon; the GWs from the merger get emitted from outside the horizon.
 

Ibix

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Could you hypothetically fly between them in such a way that the gravity on both sides net to zero?
Depends what you mean. You can (at least sometimes) find places where your path is not deviating towards one hole or another, simply from symmetry. But you will always be able to see light from distant stars Doppler shifted due to the holes' gravity.
Or dip into into one BH event horizon and then allow the presence of the second BH to allow u to escape?
No. Once you cross an event horizon, that's it.
Or possibly waiting right before they collide when a portion of their combined mass is transformed into gravitational wave energy does the event horizon shrink?
The event horizon(s) of a combining black hole are not spherically (or even cylindrically) symmetric, but settle down to it quite quickly. They change shape, rather than shrinking. And the key point is that once you are inside the horizon, you're inside. Whatever changes happen to the horizon, you can't escape it.
 
What about gravity waves themselves? Is it theoretically possible to create them? And if so encode information in them if u do? Because apparently they are the only thing that could escape from a BH
 
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What about gravity waves themselves? Is it theoretically possible to create them?
Sure, just smash some neutron stars or black holes into each other. :wink:

If you mean, create them with technology we are going to be able to develop any time soon, no. At least not gravitational waves of an intensity anywhere close to what we can detect.

apparently they are the only thing that could escape from a BH
No. Gravitational waves cannot escape from inside a black hole's event horizon, any more than anything else can. As I've already said, the GWs we observe from black hole mergers come from outside the horizon.
 

Ibix

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Is it theoretically possible to create them? And if so encode information in them if u do?
You mean artificially? Sure, you just wave a couple of neutron stars around and modulate the motion. Actually doing that is left as an exercise for the reader.
Because apparently they are the only thing that could escape from a BH
They don't escape from a black hole. Any gravitational wave you receive must come from within your past lightcone, and this cannot include anything inside an event horizon.
 
So my understanding of gravity in relativity is that it is the curvature of spacetime rather than a force in Newtonian physics. My understanding of gravitational waves are a disturbance of the spacetime curvature. Isn’t this fundamentally different from electromagnetic radiation? Does spacetime not exist within the event horizon? I understand why light can’t escape, but please explain why GW can’t as well

Also, I get that for far away objects LIGO can only detect things like BH merges, but u could have a second ship orbiting the BH that could detect weaker gravitational waves and convert the encoded information into another form of communication.

Possibly something like a particle accelerator could make tiny detectable gravity waves.
 

Ibix

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Possibly something like a particle accelerator could make tiny detectable gravity waves.
The Earth going round the Sun produces around 100W of gravitational radiation. Nothing less than a couple of stars is going to produce anything detectable.

Also - note that gravity waves are a kind of water wave. We are talking about gravitational waves.
Isn’t this fundamentally different from electromagnetic radiation? Does spacetime not exist within the event horizon?
Yes, and yes it does.
I understand why light can’t escape, but please explain why GW can’t as well
Because they propagate at the speed of light. If they could escape, so could light. Or, to put it simply, nothing can escape the event horizon.
 
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Isn’t this fundamentally different from electromagnetic radiation?
There are some differences, but there are also many similarities.

please explain why GW can’t as well
Because GWs have to move on the light cones, just like light does. They can't escape from anywhere that light can't escape from.

Possibly something like a particle accelerator could make tiny detectable gravity waves.
Just accelerating particles isn't enough. You need a nonzero third time derivative of the quadrupole moment; basically that means you need two massive objects orbiting each other, and their masses need to be not exactly the same. If the detector is close to the source, you might not need neutron star masses, but you would still need objects much more massive than anything we can manipulate now or in the foreseeable future.
 
It seems odd to me that on a BH merge that a significant portion of their total mass can be converted to Gravitational waves that are released outside the BH event horizon. Intuitively it would make sense if they were created from the impact and originated from the impact. Is this related to Hawking radiation in any way?
 
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Intuitively it would make sense if they were created from the impact and originated from the impact.
There is no impact; black holes are vacuum. Their "mass" is not because they contain matter; it's a property of the spacetime geometry.

Is this related to Hawking radiation in any way?
No. Hawking radiation is a quantum process. Gravitational wave production from a black hole merger is a classical process.
 

Ibix

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Intuitively
Unfortunately, intuition is a very poor guide to fundamental physics. You can develop and train an intuitive feel for how the maths goes, but that's a rather different thing.

If relativity were intuitive, we would not have all the threads on the twin paradox that we do. And SR is the friendly and straightforward bit of GR.
 

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Put in another way, intuition is something you get from experience. The typical person has very little experience with situations where relativity becomes noticeably different from Newtonian physics and therefore should expect to have their intuition lead them wrong and full of misconceptions from every-day intuition that no longer applies. After working with teaching SR and GR for years, I feel that I finally have some actual intuition that is applicable to those subjects as a result of being familiar with the theories and the math they contain.
 

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