from https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/world-made-up-of-2nd-3rd-gen-particles.883560/#post-5555878 quoting ohwilleke Have you come across this paper in peer reviewed Physical Review D... http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0370269379906671 or http://feynman.phy.ulaval.ca/marleau/pp/10preons/user/image/subquark-model-of-leptons-and-quarks.pdf I have the former paper written in 1979 that mentioned the "string-like excitations of the superconducting Higgs vacuum". So 37 years later, has LHC or other papers put constraints on all it said?? Quoting the relevant passages: "Unlike in the Pati-Salam scheme, there are no exotic gluons strongly coupling fundamental hadrons with leptons. The proton is predicted to be absolutely stable, therefore. Also, baryon number and lepton number L = ne + nu + nr + n(omega) + nk are separately conserved. Two new heavy leptons are predicted: omega- + k-. They should appear in the electron positron annihilation reactions: e+ + e- = omega+ + omega-, e+ + e- = k+ + k-. Non-abelian generations of the Nielsen-Olesen model , providing permanent confinement of quarks and saturation of quark forces in zerotriality states, are very attractive in the context of a composite quark theory. The condition for topologically distinct Nielsen-Olesen vortices and Dirac monopoles to exist such that the former cannot be transformed into one another by continuous gauge transformations is that the global gauge group should be multiply connected . If this group is SU(9)/Z9 (small letter 9), where the cylic group Z9= (I9,vI9, v^2I9,...,v^8I9) (v=exp (2pi(I)/9)) [Cube137 note: 9 is small letter bottom since I don't know how to type it ] is the centre of SU(9), then nine distinct vortices exist, since SU(9)/Z9 is 9-fold connected. One corresponds to the ground state of the vacuum and consists of no vortex; the other eight correspond to non-equivalent magnetic monopoles of monopole moment g0,2g0,... , 8g0 (g0=1/2e). This is because, with the Higgs field belonging to an adjoint representation of SU(9), single-valuedness modulo 2pi/9 of its phase implies that vortex flus (and magnetic charge, there) is defined only modulo (9) (in Dirac Units). Thus nine and only nine SU(9) monopoles form a magnetically neutral system when embedded in a superconducting Higgs vacuum and bound by Nielsen-Olesen vortices. Similary for three SU(3) monopoles in a vacuum with broken SU(3) symmetry. Omegons are bound in quarks by three supergluon octets of SU(3). With omegons as SU(9) monopoles, a neutral system of nine monopoles can cluster in three groups of three, bound internally and externally by Y-shaped strings that are connected via vortex bifurcations. In this way, the Meissner effect would confine both omegons inside quarks and quarks in hadrons. Identification of quarks as clusters of three SU(9) monopoles guarantees zero triality for bound states of quarks. This empirical rule is a dynamical consequence of an SU(9) vacuum, which confines fermions with magnetic charge (omegons) but not fermions with zero magnetic charge (leptons). In this scheme, mesons are quark-antiquark pairs, joind by three strings, not by one."