What is Lhc: Definition and 327 Discussions

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries. It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.
The first collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record. After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record). At the end of 2018, it entered a two-year shutdown period for further upgrades.
The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: lead–lead collisions and proton–lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

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  1. kimi7335

    I Distribution of satellite clusters around seed cluster in ATLAS

    From data of proton-proton collisions at the LHC using the ATLAS detector I have plotted a heatmap of the distribution of satellite clusters (brem and converted photons) around seed clusters (electron/photon candidates without satellites) at (eta, phi) = (0,0). The data I am using is of the...
  2. Sasho Andonov

    B What is the Volume of the Plasma Inside the LHC During Particle Collisions?

    Could someone provide an ainformation what is the temperature inside the Large Hadron Collider (or similar systems) where the colision of particles happens? THANK YOU!!!!
  3. pinball1970

    I What are the implications of neutrino detection at the LHC?

    Article below https://phys.org/news/2023-08-neutrinos-cern-large-hadron-collider.amp Publication here. https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.031801
  4. Athena319

    A Interested in the LHC safety assessment - questions about strangelets

    I became interested in the discussions about potential catastrophic risk from colliders and I have some questions about it. I am particularly interested in the strange matter scenario, and there is one thing I don't understand. I understand that the LSAG report shows that it is essentially...
  5. Vanadium 50

    I LHC High L pp run ends for 2023

    A bellows failed at the LHC near IP8 (LHCb). It has been replaced and the sector is cooling. Beam is expected on or near September 11. There will not be enough time to return to high luminosity pp running, so the run plan for the rest of the year is low luminosity special pp running and heavy...
  6. ohwilleke

    I LHC To Announce Its Lepton Universality Violation Results On Tuesday (20-Dec)

    Experimental results tending to show lepton universality violations (i.e. a different probability for decays to tau leptons, muons, and electron-positron pairs respectively, mass-energy conservation permitting) are the most notable experimental anomalies from Standard Model predictions...
  7. D

    I Higgs decay to Z and Z* at LHC

    Goodmornig.I would like to explain me What is the Z* at higgs decay and why it has different mass from Z ?
  8. mfb

    I LHC Restarts in 2022 - Live Updates

    Large Hadron Collider restarts Live status We last had collisions in December 2018, followed by the Long Shutdown 2 for accelerator and experiment upgrades. At the moment it is a very low intensity beam to make sure everything is still working and behaving as expected. Over the next month the...
  9. Wrichik Basu

    I Queries on the operation of the LHC with pilot beams before Run 3

    We all are aware of the fact that the LHC is now seeing pilot beams in preparation for Run 3 next year. Recently, I came to know about a Twitter account, @lhcstatus2, which automatically posts updates about the current operation of the LHC. I am interested in learning about some of the different...
  10. A

    Klystron beam current, drive frequency, LHC CW example

    First of all I want to ask , do the LHC power klystrons work always in CW or are their frequency shifted to correct for timing of the bunches in the LHC tubes in case something isn't aligned or doesn't that ever happen? Also how do they drive the klystrons at LHC or other CW operation from an...
  11. J

    A What is the Lens Addition Equation?

    We all know how quadra-pole and octo-pole magnets are used to accelerate the particles in the longitudinal direction, but what keeps the similarly charged particles constrained in the transverse directions? Especially after the focusing magnets...during the collision you have 10^11 positively...
  12. P

    B Energy loss in the beam of LHC

    Generally, one would expect the beam to lose its content (energy or particles) if it hits anything before its reaching its target. The whole idea of maintaining (conventional) vacuum using pumps or other means is to minimize that loss. But is it possible that there could be a beam loss purely...
  13. Dive into ATLAS at CERN for the Global Science Show

    Dive into ATLAS at CERN for the Global Science Show

    Introduction to the research at ATLAS at the LHC
  14. F

    I Heaviest particle detected so far

    I'm reading this article on Dark Matter and at some point the authors say '' if the LKP [Lightest Kalusa-Klein Particle] is to account for the observed quantity of dark matter, its mass [...] should lie in the range of 400 to 1200 GeV, well above any current experimental constraint.'' My...
  15. M

    I What happens to the non-interacting part of protons in LHC collisions?

    Hello! I am sorry if this questions is dumb, but in a pp interaction at LHC, as far as I understand, we have one quark or gluon from one proton, interacting with another quark or gluon from the other. This is the main interaction and most of the resulting particles are produced perpendicular to...
  16. Wrichik Basu

    10 yrs at the LHC - a live talk organised by The Royal Institution

    The Royal Institution has organised a live talk entitled "10 Years at the LHC". Time and Date: 7.00pm to 8.30pm BST, Thursday 24 September. Where to register: Please see this page: https://www.rigb.org/whats-on/events-2020/september/public-10-years-at-the-lhc Event description: If you...
  17. docnet

    B How does the LHC send same charged particles against each other?

    How does LHC send same-charged particles in opposite directions?
  18. P

    A Questions about magnetic monopoles

    So far as I know there are no monopoles in the electro-weak sector of standard model. So people look for it in the GUT and SUSY sectors. However, they are predicted to be heavy(order of Planck mass). There have been studies from LHC attempting to detect monopoles. So here are my questions: 1...
  19. A

    I The LHC: A Giant Bent Klystron Tube?

    Now the text tells that "By contrast, protons with slightly different energies arriving earlier or later will be accelerated or decelerated so that they stay close to the desired energy. In this way, the particle beam is sorted into packs of protons called "bunches". Here it refers to the main...
  20. ColdheartedGod

    B Schwarzschild radius of an object is smaller than Planck length

    I had this idea when some people said that LHC can produce black hole. Based on the calculation of Schwarzschild Radius, any mass than 9.375×10^7 kg have a Schwarzschild radius smaller than the plank length. Particles inside LHC or other particle accelerator have clearly radii smaller than that...
  21. S

    What Can We Expect from the LHC Tour in 2019 and Beyond?

    Who has traveled to see LHC in Switzerland? How much of it have you seen and allowable to see? For 2019, What is the schedule of visit? Does it only occur during shutdown? What hotel did you stay? How was your LHC tour overall? Please share your experiences.
  22. K

    I Why does LHC have 8 interaction points?

    Hello! I attached a picture of the LHC main rings. I see 8 interactions points labeled, even if there are only 4 experiments (and the other 4 points don't even intersect). What are these 4 other points? Thank you!
  23. ohwilleke

    I How Much Better Will Top and Higgs Mass Measurements Get?

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recently released joint annual review papers regarding their measurements of the properties of the top quark and the Higgs boson, including their masses, respectively. The most recent mass measurement of the top quark are 172.51 ±...
  24. ohwilleke

    I Is there new LHC data on coupling constant running?

    Question Has the LHC released any papers or reports on the observed running of any of the three Standard Model coupling constants with energy scale from either Run-1 or Run-2 data (or both data sets)? Last time I looked I couldn't find any data As of January 2014, I had not locate any papers...
  25. N

    I Communicating about the LHC and Cosmology in a creative way?

    Hello everybody, I'm a undergraduate student in Physics at my first year, and we got a project in our course: Astrophysics and Relativity. The topic is basically about how we can use the experiments at LHC in astrophysics/cosmology, (Which of course is trying understand the early universe etc)...
  26. S

    B LHC -- Why no success except for the Higgs?

    Why aren’t we seeing anything. 99.99991% the speed of light. Nothing. Also why would we need and lhc the size of galaxy to see graviton? Help?
  27. M

    I Exploring New Physics in LHC Data: Insights from a Resonance Search Study

    Hello! The attached pic is from this paper. So on the y you have counts and on the x you have a certain parameter used to search for a certain resonance. The colored part is the Standard Model (SM) prediction and the black dots are the obtained data while the dashed lines are the simulated...
  28. YoungPhysicist

    I Closing the Gap: The Evolution of CMS at CERN

    In this picture of CMS, there is a huge gap between the two sides. There is no way that the collision occur directly in midair right? So is the gap already been sealed? ( which means the picture was taken before it started to operate) Or I am completely wrong?
  29. N

    I Length Contraction of Protons in the LHC

    What affect does the phenomenon of "length contraction" have on the shape (e.g. spherical, rugby ball, barbell, donut) of protons accelerated to 0.999999991 c in the LHC?
  30. Greg Bernhardt

    Insights Interview with Niels Tuning, LHCb Run Coordinator - Comments

    Greg Bernhardt submitted a new PF Insights post Interview with Niels Tuning, LHCb Run Coordinator Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  31. mfb

    I LHC finishes proton-proton collisions in 2018

    New year, new thread! Here was 2017. Yesterday the first beams this year circulated in the LHC. As every year, the machine operators start with a single low intensity bunch, checking that everything still works properly, and adjusting some parameters where the conditions changed over the winter...
  32. B

    B LHC Constrains on Compactified M-theory SUSY particles

    I just finished Gordon Kane superb book "String Theory and the Real World" in one sitting. It answered most of my current questions about the field. I need some hard data. He mentioned: "More generally, where did the predictions for superpartner masses come from? Until recently there were no...
  33. slow

    B Damage to CERN LHC: Breakdowns and Updates (April 2017)

    Hi. I search the internet for descriptions about damage to the CERN LHC. A news item, dated April 4, 2017, has appeared regarding an irreparable damage to the machine. Obviously I thought it was a joke. But I also did not find something that contradicts it. Can anyone provide any information...
  34. ohwilleke

    I Is there a fine structure constant running anomaly?

    Background The chart above, via Lubos Motl's blog which is standard in any textbook talking about supersymmetry, illustrates the running of the the inverse of the Standard Model (SM) and Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM) coupling constants with energy scale for the electromagnetic force...
  35. It's me

    I How can I access event data for LHCb calorimeters?

    I want to do a project using machine learning on the calorimeter event data of the LHCb. How can I access this data? Is it very difficult to navigate your way through the source code on your own?
  36. K

    I Beyond LHC, future particle colliders and lasers

    With LHC currently at 13TEV design energy, and a planned higher luminosity upgrade, is the current plan to double the magnet strength for the current existing LHC to arrive at a 28-33TEV collider, or is it building a completely new future 100 TEV collider near Geneva where LHC is housed but in...
  37. T

    I Does LHC like collisions occur naturally

    Does collisions like those in the LHC happen naturally, producing exotic particles, like the Higgs boson?
  38. E

    A Hadrons with significant branching ratios to muons

    Hi, I'm undergraduate researcher and my professor is interested in the answer to this question. He's kind of left me in the dark on why this is important to us, but that is another matter. We want hadrons that are produced at LHC conditions and decay before reaching the detector. So far all...
  39. Dennis Plews

    A LHC - absence of supersymmetric particles

    Thread title edited by moderator. I've not seen any reports from CERN concerning the detection of any putative supersymmetric particles. Is the absence of such detections a problem?
  40. P

    Particle accelerators and timing for particles

    So, I found this document that talks about rf cavities at lhc https://home.cern/about/engineering/radiofrequency-cavities Can you please explain me what i underlined Means? If i understood when the particles achieve the velocity the scientist want them to achieve they get into the cavity when...
  41. mfb

    I What are the challenges faced by LHC in the initial data-taking of 2017?

    "Stable beams" has been declared 30 minutes ago. Similar to 2016, the initial collision rate is low (0.2% the design rate). The machine operators have to check that everything works and nothing presents a danger to the machine before more protons can be filled in. It will probably take a few...
  42. hsdrop

    B Can the LHC Create Atom-Sized Black Holes?

    Is it possible for the L.H.C. to have an atom size (or smaller) black hole from the collision chambers?? This will lead up to a bigger question if it a possible yes, I just don't want to sound like a moron right off the bat.
  43. mfb

    I B -> s µµ decays: Current status

    Something curious is going on with these decays. LHCb gives a seminar talk Tuesday next week, a livestream will be available. Edit: See results discussed starting here I'll summarize the current status here. I tried to keep most at the advanced (I)-level, but I don't think that always worked...
  44. K

    I Decay of the Bs0 meson latest LHC results 7.8 sigma

    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-04/thni-tma041217.php In its most recent analysis the LHCb experiment team took into account not only the first but also the second phase of operation of the LHC. The larger statistics helped achieve exceptional accuracy of the measurement of the...
  45. J

    I Is proton decay considered in neutron star models (and LHC)?

    Although it is definitely not simple, there are many reasons to consider that baryon number can be violated, for example: - while baryogenesis there was created more matter than antimatter, - hypothetical Hawking radiation can finally turn any matter (mainly baryons) into massless radiation...
  46. D

    Engineering Career path for particle accelerator engineering?

    I'm currently in year 12 (studying IB with hl physics, maths and chemistry) in the UK and am starting to look at uni courses. For a few years now I have been absolutely fascinated by the particle physics/quantum side of physics. At the movement I would love to work in research in this sort of...
  47. mfb

    I Evidence of Light-by-light scattering by ATLAS

    For centuries, scientists argued whether light was waves or particles. Light scattering with other light would favor the particle concept. Today we know both models are wrong, but quantum electrodynamics also predicts this scattering - just with an incredibly tiny rate, so it has never been...
  48. SheriffPeabody

    B If Higgs has mass of 125GeV why did the LHC need 3.5TeV?

    Hi, I've tried to find an answer to this question, sorry if it's already been asked. I'm sure I have misunderstood something important here, but if the Higgs was found to have a mass of 125GeV, why did we need such a powerful collider to find it? (I think the LHC was running at 3.5TeV when they...
  49. K

    I LHC run 2, does Supersymmetry worsen hierarchy fine tuning

    post-LHC run 2, does Supersymmetry worsen hierarchy fine tuning? according to what most theorists argument, the SM has a hierarchy fine tuning in the Higgs sector based on naturalness. The proposed solution to this problem is supersymmetry. post-LHC run 2, no SUSY partners and no hints of SUSY...