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I have two questions:

(1) Are all resistors connected in one of two ways? I.e., resistors can be connected in parallel and in series, but is it possible for them to be connected as NOT parllel and NOT series? For instance, the two circled resistors don't seem to be connected in either parallel or series. That is, they're neither in series nor in parallel?

(2) Suppose we short the 12 V voltage source. Then the two resistors circled are in parallel.

If I want to simplify this circuit by combinding these two resistors, I find the equivalent resistance Req = 1/(1/4 + 1/4) = (1/(1/2)) = 2.

My question is, where do I put it? I have two resistors, what do I do with the second? Do make an open circuit from one of the resistors, and replace the other with Req? If I do this, there are two possibilities for the circuit. Are both of these two possible circuits equivalent?