I am placing my question here as it is electrochemistry Volta, in his pile, generated voltage and at least a few mA of current He had 100 copper disks separated from zinc disks by wet blotting-paper So each gave 1.2 volts and he had lots of volts. But THINK about this! ALL surfaces are coated by a monolayer of water! Especially in UK where I live! So his battery was cu water zn water cu water zn ....... Total 1.2 -1.2+1.2-1.2 +1.2............... = 0 volts. So how THICK does an electrolyte have to be to be an electrolyte? And WHY is copper/zinc 1.2 to 1.4 volts and lead/lead peroxide 2 to 2.7 volts How is it related to the electron fermi levels Why are the best anodes (like PbO2) semiconductors? Why is Zn/C 1.4 volts in NH4Cl with MnO2 "depolariser" and Zn/C in the dichromate cell and Grove cell 2.0 volts. Why don't they include non-metals in the "Electrochemical Series"?