Trouble understanding orbital hybridization

In summary, Tom provides a summary of the content and states that orbital hybridization occurs as a result of electron repulsion. He explains that single (covalent) bonds are sigma bonds, and every bond after that is pi bonds. Finally, he provides a diagram that helps to visualize the orientation of pi and sigma bonds.
  • #1
thomasxc
140
0
As the title suggests, i am having difficulty understanding orbital hybridization, as well as pi and sigma bonds. Can someone help me out and/or point me in the right direction? Thanks


Tom
 
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  • #3
so orbitals become hybridized because of electron repulsion?
 
  • #4
thomasxc said:
so orbitals become hybridized because of electron repulsion?

Sorry, I should have included this link as well. http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb06.html Orbitals hybridize to allow bonding in atoms that otherwise wouldn't be able to form the bonds they do (see the beryllium example in the above link.)
 
  • #5
that one helps a bit. and what about pi and sigma bonds?
 
  • #6
All single (covalent) bonds are sigma bonds, and every bond after that is pi bonds. For example: If you have carbon bonded to four hydrogen atoms, then you have 4 single bonds, therefore you have 4 sigma bonds. Where as if you have elemental Nitrogen (N2), you have a triple bond, so there is 1 sigma bond in the triple bond, and the other two are pi bonds.

Single bond = 1 sigma bond
Double bond = 1 sigma bond + 1 pi bond
Triple bond = 1 sigma bond + 2 pi bonds
 
  • #7
nickdk said:
All single (covalent) bonds are sigma bonds, and every bond after that is pi bonds. For example: If you have carbon bonded to four hydrogen atoms, then you have 4 single bonds, therefore you have 4 sigma bonds. Where as if you have elemental Nitrogen (N2), you have a triple bond, so there is 1 sigma bond in the triple bond, and the other two are pi bonds.

Single bond = 1 sigma bond
Double bond = 1 sigma bond + 1 pi bond
Triple bond = 1 sigma bond + 2 pi bonds


i understand this, (i think) but i am confused as to their orientation in reference to each other. my ap chem teacher made it seem like one surrounds/revolves around the other, but when i asked that specifically, he said no.
 
  • #8
thomasxc said:
that one helps a bit. and what about pi and sigma bonds?

Sigma bonds are formed by the end-to-end overlapping of orbitals. Pi bonds are formed by the side-to-side overlapping of orbitals.

CO2_hyb.png
 
  • #9
thomasxc said:
i understand this, (i think) but i am confused as to their orientation in reference to each other. my ap chem teacher made it seem like one surrounds/revolves around the other, but when i asked that specifically, he said no.

What do you mean by orientation?
 
  • #10
the diagram he showed us made it seem like one orbital was in the middle, while the other had the ability to be anywhere around it. perhaps incorrectly, i took that to mean it might revolve or rotate around it.
 
  • #11
and then he said it was somehow similar to resonance, which served only to confuse me more:/
 
  • #12
The pi orbital is perpendicular to the sp2 orbitals in an sp2 atom, and the two pi orbitals are perpendicular to each other and to the sp orbitals in an sp atom.


Too confusing? We'll, I always tell myself I'd suck at teaching...
 
  • #13
If you have a good general chem book then it basically just takes a lot of reading until you understand these concepts. This section for me, along with entropy were the hardest parts about chem 1 so far.

Just remember that the central atom of the molecule must make enough hybrid orbitals to accommodate any bonded atoms and lone pairs attached to the central atom.
 
  • #14
You may think about it this way: sigma bond links centers of the atoms, they are like balls connected with a rod. This rod can rotate. Place in the middle is already occupied, so pi bonds must be on sides - that means additional rods, parallel to the first one (I see it as a two thinner rods on two sides, as lobes of p orbitals stick out). Now construction becomes rigid. Second pi bond will be similar, it just lies in the plane perpendicular to the plane where first pi bond lies.

--
 

Related to Trouble understanding orbital hybridization

What is orbital hybridization?

Orbital hybridization is a concept in chemistry that explains how atomic orbitals combine to form new hybrid orbitals in molecules. It is a model used to describe the shapes and energies of atomic orbitals in molecules.

Why is orbital hybridization important?

Orbital hybridization is important because it helps us understand the bonding and structure of molecules. By knowing the hybridization of an atom, we can predict the geometry and properties of the molecule.

How does orbital hybridization affect the properties of a molecule?

The type of hybridization in a molecule affects its bond angles, bond lengths, and bond strengths. This, in turn, influences the chemical and physical properties of the molecule, such as its reactivity and polarity.

What are the different types of orbital hybridization?

The most common types of orbital hybridization are sp, sp2, and sp3, which involve the combination of s and p orbitals. Other hybridization types include sp3d, sp3d2, and sp3d3, which involve the combination of s, p, and d orbitals.

How can I determine the hybridization of an atom in a molecule?

The hybridization of an atom can be determined by counting the number of electron groups (bonds or lone pairs) around the atom and using the following guidelines: sp for 2 electron groups, sp2 for 3 electron groups, sp3 for 4 electron groups, sp3d for 5 electron groups, sp3d2 for 6 electron groups, and sp3d3 for 7 electron groups.

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