1. Yukawa Potential So reading about the yukawa potential I notice that the constant k is related to the inverse of the effective distance of the force from what I've been reading. Thing is everything I read about the strong force states it has infinite range but simply has a maximum potential at ~ 10k Newtons. My question than is for the strong force is k related to ∞ or related to the point it levels out? The yukawa potential seems to be an equation that uses the coupling constant to relate different forces or that's what I keep reading. So for the fine structure constant and r = ∞ it illustrates Coulomb's Law. Does this extend to all forces such as gravity and weak as well? 2. The weak force I'm reading about is the result of exchanging bosons that results in quark transmutation. (up,charm,top) -> (down,strange,bottom). I can understand how this would result in destabilization in large atoms. However, what are the stimuli that cause the generation of these bosons in a nucleus? I mean 90 GeV type energies don't come from nowhere. A whole proton is just slight of 1 GeV in energy so I find it difficult to imagine where it comes.