The following article says virtual particles don't exist or are just book keeping device. https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/physics-virtual-particles If that's the case, then how do you explain charge screening? We observe the charge of an electron to be less than the bare charge, or what it really is, because it is surrounded by a cloud of electron-positron pairs. Experiments confirm that the measured value of the electron's charge is determined by the distance fro which you measure it. How do you explain that without virtual particles?