# What causes potential difference in the conductor?

• George_Tailor
In summary, the conversation discusses the cause of potential difference in a conductor and how changing magnetic flux induces EMF. The expert explains that Faraday's Law and Maxwell's equations show that the electric field is responsible for inducing the potential difference. The conversation also touches on the quantum physics explanation of this phenomenon and mentions that a changing magnetic flux includes an electric field which affects the electrons and induces a current in a conductor. The conversation concludes with a recommendation to check out a resource on Special Relativity.
George_Tailor
What cause potential difference in the conductor? I mean why the changing magnetic flux induce EMF? I understand the basics but I can't understand it. What I know: there is free electrons on the surface of a copper conductor. Electron have electric field vector and magnetic field vector and these are perpendicular. Electric vector point to the protons/core usually but these are delocalized electrons. In a changing magnetic flux these electrons always turn to the opposite side of flux with their magnetic vector but don't move. That's all, just turn. Why build it EMF? Where is the potential difference?

Hello George! Welcome to PF!
George_Tailor said:
…there is free electrons on the surface of a copper conductor. Electron have electric field vector and magnetic field vector and …

No, you are treating "a changing magnetic flux" as if that is all there is.

You cannot have a changing magnetic field without an electric field

Faraday's Law (one of Maxwell's equations) says ∂B/∂t = -curlE

it's that E which cause the electric potential difference!

tiny-tim said:
Hello George! Welcome to PF!

No, you are treating "a changing magnetic flux" as if that is all there is.

You cannot have a changing magnetic field without an electric field

Faraday's Law (one of Maxwell's equations) says ∂B/∂t = -curlE

it's that E which cause the electric potential difference!

OK, I know the equation and all what you say. But what is the quantum physics explanation of this EMF? You mean if the magnetic field sort electrons in the same direction the electric field vectors of these also will point in one direction and this cause EMF? But why these electrons start to move in a short circuit?

George_Tailor said:
You mean if the magnetic field sort electrons in the same direction the electric field vectors of these also will point in one direction and this cause EMF?

Sorry, George, but I don't know what you mean.

A changing magnetic flux includes an electric field.

That electric field (obviously) affects the electrons, and it induces a current in a conductor.

## What is potential difference?

Potential difference, also known as voltage, is the difference in electric potential energy between two points in a conductor. It is measured in volts (V) and is represented by the symbol ΔV.

## What causes potential difference in a conductor?

Potential difference in a conductor is caused by the presence of an electric field. This electric field can be created by a variety of sources, such as a battery, power source, or other charged objects.

## How does potential difference affect the flow of electrons?

The presence of potential difference in a conductor causes a flow of electrons, known as an electric current. Electrons will flow from an area of high potential (positive) to an area of low potential (negative). The greater the potential difference, the greater the flow of electrons.

## What factors affect the potential difference in a conductor?

The potential difference in a conductor can be affected by several factors, including the strength of the electric field, the distance between the two points, and the type of material the conductor is made of. In addition, the amount of charge and the direction of the electric field can also affect potential difference.

## How is potential difference measured?

Potential difference is measured using a device called a voltmeter. A voltmeter measures the difference in electric potential energy between two points in a conductor and displays it in units of volts (V). It can be connected in parallel to the conductor to measure the potential difference at a specific point, or across two points to measure the potential difference between them.

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