I bought physics for game programmers today to study ballistic impact, but I'm confused as to where a few numbers are coming from. I'm basically looking to understand what the values represent since the book does a bad job at telling me. I get that Ek = .5mv. In talking about the F-Formula, developed by Dr. L. Thompson (neither of which I can find anything about) "The equation was presented as a ratio between the plate thickness and the diameter of the projectile." That equation: t/d = 0.0623 (((mv)^2)/((d^3)(F^2)))cos^2 angle I realize that the above was just an example of the equation in the book, but .0623 is pissing me off. I have no idea where they get this from. Probably some number relating to steel armor since that's what he's talking about... so I'll continue... "The coefficient F is a measure of the penetration resistance of the armor" That equation: F = 1.8288((t/d) - 0.45)(angle^2 + 2000) + 12192. Can someone tell me what those numbers are? I don't care where they got them from, but what are they suppose to be? I need to know so I can plug my own in... Apparently it's also possibly to "rearrange the Thompson formula so that it is in the terms of the minimum projectile energy, Ek, necessary to penetrate the armor. Ek = .5mv^2 = 8.025((td^2)(F^2))/(cos^2 angle) Again... another imaginary number. What is this 8.025??? What should go there? It says the right hand side of the last equation there tells which factors influence steel armor pen, so I'm guessing the 8.025 is relating to that, but what factor? Thickness? To further confuse me, it seems like he then tries to take everything he's taught me so far and then simplify it. Assuming the impact is head on and uses the second to last equation I provided to compute the F coefficient: F = 1.8288((.01m/.009m) - .45)(2000) + 12192 = 14610 So then taking that number .5mv^2 = 8.025 * .01 * .009^2 * 14610^2 = 1387.5 J. It footnotes and says a 9mm bullet has a mass of .0082 kg and a muzzle velocity of 440 m/s. The bullet only does 794 J, so the armor stops the bullet. I just need someone to tell me what those numbers represent. Much thanks! Sorry for the lack of units, but that's literally all the book tells me. It doesn't provide units and the text doesn't indicate it. I think kg would be appropriate though.