Why Do Up & Down Quarks Have Different Charge?

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In summary, up and down quarks have different charges (+2/3 and -1/3, respectively) due to their fundamental properties. This difference in charge allows protons and neutrons to have positive and neutral charges. There are four other types of quarks (charm, strange, top, and bottom) that also have different charges. Up and down quarks interact through the strong nuclear force, and their charges cannot be changed as they are considered fundamental particles.
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Is there a simple explanation for why up & down quarks have different charge?
 
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When "quarks" were invented by Gell-Mann and Zweig, they were simply associated the charges (2/3 elementary charges for the up, -1/3 for the down quark) such that the correct charge pattern for the hadrons resulted. See,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eightfold_Way_(physics)

for the SU(3)-constituent-quark model.

Nowadays this charge pattern, together with the 3 colors of the color SU(3) underlying QCD, make the Standard Model consistent in avoiding a chiral anomaly of the weak gauge group ##\mathrm{SU}(2)_{\text{wiso}} \times \mathrm{U}(1)_{\text{Y}}.##
 
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Related to Why Do Up & Down Quarks Have Different Charge?

1. Why do up and down quarks have different charges?

Up and down quarks have different charges because they are two of the six types of quarks that make up protons and neutrons. Up quarks have a charge of +2/3, while down quarks have a charge of -1/3. This difference in charge is what allows protons and neutrons to have a positive or neutral charge, respectively.

2. What determines the charges of up and down quarks?

The charges of up and down quarks are determined by their fundamental properties, specifically their electric charge and weak isospin. These properties are intrinsic to each quark and cannot be changed.

3. Are there any other types of quarks with different charges?

Yes, there are four other types of quarks besides up and down: charm, strange, top, and bottom. These quarks also have different charges, with charm and top having a charge of +2/3 and strange and bottom having a charge of -1/3.

4. How do up and down quarks interact with each other?

Up and down quarks interact with each other through the strong nuclear force, which is one of the four fundamental forces in nature. This force is responsible for holding quarks together to form protons and neutrons.

5. Can the charges of up and down quarks change?

No, the charges of up and down quarks cannot change. Quarks are considered to be fundamental particles, meaning they cannot be broken down into smaller components. As such, their charges remain constant and cannot be altered.

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