# Wave Equation, stuck on a partial calculation

by Somefantastik
Tags: differentation, integral, partial
 P: 225 Hey everybody, My professor started our PDE I class in Chapter six, so I am having a hard time with the really basic stuff to get the theory down. One of my questions to answer is to verify a solution by using direct substitution. $$u(x,t) \ = \ \frac{1}{2}\left[\phi(x+t) \ + \ \phi(x-t) \right] \ + \ \frac{1}{2} \int^{x+t}_{x-t}\Psi(s)ds$$ With initial conditions $$u(x,t_{0}) = \phi(x) \ , \ \frac{\partial u}{\partial t} (x,t_{0}) = \Psi(x), \ and \ t_{0} = 0$$ satisfies $$\frac{\partial^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}} - \frac{\partial^{2}u}{\partial t^{2}} = 0$$ It was easy for me to plug and chug to show that $$u(x,t_{0}) = \phi(x) \ and \ \frac{\partial u}{\partial t} (x,t_{0}) = \Psi(x)$$ Clearly my next step is to find $$\frac{\partial^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}}$$ but that's the step on which I'm stuck. Can someone get me started? If someone can show me how to do the second partial w.r.t x, it would be a good exercise for me to figure out the second partial w.r.t t. I apply the chain rule and just get a bunch of garbage back, which means I'm messing it up somewhere. Any input is appreciated.
 Math Emeritus Sci Advisor Thanks PF Gold P: 39,682 You need "Leibniz' formula": $$\frac{d}{dx}\int_{\alpha(x)}^{\beta(x)} \phi(x,t)dt= \frac{d\beta}{dx}\phi(x,\beta(x))- \frac{d\alpha}{dx}\phi(x,\alpha(x))+ \int_{\alpha(x)}^{\beta(x)} \frac{\partial \phi}{\partial x}dt$$ It's really just applying the chain rule correctly.
 P: 225 $$\frac{d}{dx}\int_{\alpha(x)}^{\beta(x)} \phi(x,t)dt= \frac{d\beta}{dx}\phi(x,\beta(x))- \frac{d\alpha}{dx}\phi(x,\alpha(x))+ \int_{\alpha(x)}^{\beta(x)} \frac{\partial \phi}{\partial x}dt$$ I'm having trouble understanding this. It looks like the integrand you gave is a function of 2 variables, but the integrand I have is a function of one variable. I'm not sure what to do with that. Also: $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x} (\phi(x+t)) = ?$$ is it $$= \phi '(x + t), \ or \ \phi_{x}(x+t) \ ?$$ In the notation of a function, how do I write that? I guess I'm having a notational brain fart.
 P: 225 Wave Equation, stuck on a partial calculation I found this worked out in Walter Strauss's book, so I guess I don't need help anymore. Thanks for looking :)
Math
Emeritus
Thanks
PF Gold
P: 39,682
 Quote by Somefantastik $$\frac{d}{dx}\int_{\alpha(x)}^{\beta(x)} \phi(x,t)dt= \frac{d\beta}{dx}\phi(x,\beta(x))- \frac{d\alpha}{dx}\phi(x,\alpha(x))+ \int_{\alpha(x)}^{\beta(x)} \frac{\partial \phi}{\partial x}dt$$ I'm having trouble understanding this. It looks like the integrand you gave is a function of 2 variables, but the integrand I have is a function of one variable. I'm not sure what to do with that.
In that case,
$$\frac{\partial\phi}{\partial x}= 0$$
and the formula becomes
$$\frac{d}{dx}\int_{\alpha(x)}^{\beta(x)} \phi(x,t)dt= \frac{d\beta}{dx}\phi(x,\beta(x))- \frac{d\alpha}{dx}\phi(x,\alpha(x))$$

 Also: $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x} (\phi(x+t)) = ?$$ is it $$= \phi '(x + t), \ or \ \phi_{x}(x+t) \ ?$$ In the notation of a function, how do I write that? I guess I'm having a notational brain fart.
Use the chain rule. If $\phi'(u)$ is the derivative of $\phi$ as a function of the single variable u, then
$$\frac{\partial\phi(x+t)}{\partial x}= \phi'(x+t)(1)= \phi'(x+t)$$
 P: 225 HallsofIvy, thanks for helping me. If anyone finds this post and needs help with taking the derivative of an integral, I found this website that helped as well: http://mathmistakes.info/facts/Calcu...n/doi/doi.html

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