## How calculate propeller efficiency if I know propeller trust?

If the value you have for the motor is taken from a book it is likely to be Power at crankshaft. Brake Horsepower.

Between motor and propellor is a transmission.

If assuming no loss from transmission.
Shaft Horsepower = Motor Horsepower.

However, transmission will always have loss in real cases. This is why I used:
20000 W *.9 = 18000 W

Example Case.

Engine is 50% thermal efficient
Engine is 90% mechanical efficienct.
Transmission is 90% efficienct.

Input fuel = 100000W
Motor output = input* efficiency = 50000 W (theoretical/indicated output)
Real Motor output = motor output*mechanical efficiency = 45000 W (brake output)
Shaft Power Available = real output* transmission efficiency = 40500 W (shaft output)

Before power gets to propeller 59.5% of power is lost.
This is why we use Shaft power.

 Quote by xxChrisxx If the value you have for the motor is taken from a book it is likely to be Power at crankshaft. Brake Horsepower. Between motor and propellor is a transmission. If assuming no loss from transmission. Shaft Horsepower = Motor Horsepower. However, transmission will always have loss in real cases. This is why I used: 20000 W *.9 = 18000 W Example Case. Engine is 50% thermal efficient Engine is 90% mechanical efficienct. Transmission is 90% efficienct. Input fuel = 100000W Motor output = input* efficiency = 50000 W (theoretical/indicated output) Real Motor output = motor output*mechanical efficiency = 45000 W (brake output) Shaft Power Available = real output* transmission efficiency = 40500 W (shaft output) Before power gets to propeller 59.5% of power is lost. This is why we use Shaft power.
Then I say motor output power, I to output power include all lost power. I not think about transmision. I think that motor shaft be directly placed to propeller.

 Then you are assuming no transmission losses. This means that when you say motor power, this is the same as when other people say shaft power. Which is ok, so long as you say it. Otherwise it is confusing.

 Quote by xxChrisxx Then you are assuming no transmission losses. This means that when you say motor power, this is the same as when other people say shaft power. Which is ok, so long as you say it. Otherwise it is confusing.
I assuming that no reduction.

This means that when I say motor output power, this is the same as when other people say shaft power.

 Quote by vissarion.eu I assuming that no reduction. This means that when I say motor output power, this is the same as when other people say shaft power.
Yes. :)

 Then propeller diameter is for example 0.457 m and pich is 0.254 m (18x10 inches) and propeller rotation speed is for example 4000 rpm then propeller max eficienty be at speed (propeller eficienty max be then sliding propeller is 20-30 %): 4000/60 s = 66.666666666666666666666666666667 revolution per second. 66.666666666666666666666666666667 * 0.254 = 16.933333333333333333333333333333 meters per second. 16.933333333333333333333333333333 * 3.6 = 60.96 km/h 60.96 * 0.75 = 45.72 km/h. So max propeller efficienty of propeller 18x10 inch with 4000 rpm be at speed 45.72 km/h. If propeller is 12x6 inch (305 cm diameter and pitch 152 cm) and rpm is 4000, then propeller max efficienty be at speed: 66.67 rps * 0.152 = 10.13384 m/s 10.13384 * 3.6 = 36.481824 km/h 36.481824 * 0.75 = 27.361368 km/h. If propeller is 12x6 inch (305 cm diameter and pitch 152 cm) and rpm is 6000, then propeller max efficienty be at speed: 6000/60 = 100 revolution per second 100 * 0.152 = 15.2 m/s 15.2 m/s * 3.6 = 54.72 km/h 54.72 km/h * 0.75 = 41.04 km/h If you not ride on that speed, then propeller eficienty is max ( maybe 60-80 %), then propeller efficienty can be 10 precent if you ride about, not 41.04 km/h, but 7 km/h. Propeller efficienty posible maybe known use ventilator and blow to propeller. If we know ventiliator motor output power, ventilator efficienty and know power what generates generator on that is propeller and we know generator efficienty, then we can calculate propeller efficienty. I read what some propellers max efficienty is 0.9. Thats propellers max efficienty is 0.9: http://www.aerosila.ru/index.php?act..._content&id=17 http://www.aerosila.ru/index.php?act..._content&id=18
 Thanks for your reply vissarion.eu! Interesting things you share, though it may be a bit over my physical knowledge to count out these details. But according to what you say and the values you show the efficiency of a propeller is very depending of the right size and pitch for the intended speed. About the efficiency, did I got it right that this is the same thing as the percentual thrust compared to wheel drive at the actual speed (and assuming wheel drive had 100% efficiency)? Regards, Patric

 Quote by Swedpat Thanks for your reply vissarion.eu! Interesting things you share, though it may be a bit over my physical knowledge to count out these details. But according to what you say and the values you show the efficiency of a propeller is very depending of the right size and pitch for the intended speed.
For slow (10-30 km/h) moving cars, bicycles driven with propeller beter, of corse, larger propeler, than smaller propeller and beter more blades propeller, than less blades propeller, but with higher rpm if you want bigest eficienty (for example for bicycle driven with propeller if we want speed 20 km/h need about 0.6 meter propeller with 4 blades and 2000 rpm propeller rotating speed; need about 5 kg thrust to pull bicycle, who weight with rider about 80 Kg).
 Quote by Swedpat About the efficiency, did I got it right that this is the same thing as the percentual thrust compared to wheel drive at the actual speed (and assuming wheel drive had 100% efficiency)?
I, how is in reallity, do not known.

 http://www.electric-bikes.com/betterbikes/index.html Jet when fly not have friction with ground, but it has wings, so wings frictring to air. Bicycle driven with propeller not have wing, who fricting to air, but have wheels, who fricting to ground and ball-bearings (and not front wheel bicycle have free-wheel, what about 3 times make biger friction, about 3-4 times faster stop back wheel, than front wheel, when you rotate its with same speed). I think, that showen in image is not correct (how you think?), because then possible be ride with about 20 W motor on 8 km/h speed. Must be like this, I think:
 I calculate what need 1000 rpm propeller 0.5 meter pitch propeller and diameter propeller we can choose 2-1.7 meter with two blades or 1.7-1.5 with 4 blades for bicycle to run 22.5 km/h. 1000/60 = 16.666666666666666666666666666667 r/s 0.5 * 16.666666666666666666666666666667 = 8.3333333333333333333333333333333 m/s 8.3333333333333333333333333333333 * 3.6 = 30 km/h 30 * 0.75 = 22.5 km/h
 I be bulded propeller driving bicycle with motor who use about 500-800 W power, bettery weight be 5.3 kg, motor weight be about 300 g, propeller be 18x10 inches APC. My wheight be about 55 kg. Motor rpm be about 6000-3000 and I ride on it without pedaling on flat about 10-15 km/h.

 Quote by vissarion.eu For slow (10-30 km/h) moving cars, bicycles driven with propeller beter, of corse, larger propeler, than smaller propeller and beter more blades propeller, than less blades propeller, but with higher rpm if you want bigest eficienty (for example for bicycle driven with propeller if we want speed 20 km/h need about 0.6 meter propeller with 4 blades and 2000 rpm propeller rotating speed; need about 5 kg thrust to pull bicycle, who weight with rider about 80 Kg).
Pedalled drived airplanes have a 2-bladed propeller of around 3m diameter, so I understand that the most efficient is to have a large propeller which is rotating not much faster than the vehicle. About the air and rolling resistance I think I read that a racing bike has not much more rolling resistance than 5N and I think the air resistance may be around 10N in 30km/h. I therefore think 5kg(50N) is the total resistance in 50+km/h.

Here is a guy who actually made a propeller trike:
http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007...ller-trike.php

 Quote by Swedpat Pedalled drived airplanes have a 2-bladed propeller of around 3m diameter, so I understand that the most efficient is to have a large propeller which is rotating not much faster than the vehicle.
Bigest propeller have two advantages (good things):
1 good thing. Slow rotating, lees friction brearing.
2 good thing. It blow less to himself, like in this image:

And is other good thing. Then pitch is, for example, 10 inches and diameter propeller is 40 inches, then that propeller very not efficien. Best proportion is then pitch and diameter is about 1:1, for example best proportion is 10x10 inches, 1x1 meter, 2x2 meters. Midle propeller angle of atack must be about 45 degree.

Big propeller only not good things is that it must be wery thin profile (for pedal, propeller driven bicycle, who speed is about 20 km/h), so it easy breake.

And, maybe, difficult make transmision to rotate for exampla 0.5 meter propeller with pedal. Much easy, maybe, make for 3 meter diameter propeller transmision and beter be efficient transmision.

Small propeller( for example 0.5x0.5 meter), who efficienty max is on 20 km/h and we need that speed, for esample, not make enought thrus. So need make smaller pich, for example 0.5 diameter meter and pitch 0.1 meter and make biger rpm, but how I said that propeller proportion is not efficient. Or can use 0.5 meter diameter and 0.5 pitch meter propeller with highest rpm, but then it and now be not efficient, because max efficienty it be for example on 50 km/h, on 20 km/h it eficienty be, let say, about 30 precent (on 50 km/h be about 70 precent), so it makes enough thrust to ride on 20 km/h, but eficienty propeller be only 30 precent, so using bigest propeller, who diameter can be 3 meters and pitch can be 3 meters. And it make enough thrust to ride or fly on 20 km/h and it max efficienty is on 20 km/h.

For example in this video