What is Covid-19: Definition and 115 Discussions

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, and loss of smell and taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms. Of those people who develop noticeable symptoms enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction). Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects (long COVID) for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.Transmission of COVID-19 occurs when people are exposed to virus-containing respiratory droplets and airborne particles exhaled by an infected person. Those particles may be inhaled or may reach the mouth, nose, or eyes of a person through touching or direct deposition (i.e. being coughed on). The risk of infection is highest when people are in close proximity for a long time, but particles can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors in poorly ventilated and crowded spaces. In those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hours. Touching a contaminated surface or object may lead to infection although this does not contribute substantially to transmission. People who are infected can transmit the virus to another person up to two days before they themselves show symptoms, as can people who do not experience symptoms. People remain infectious for up to ten days after the onset of symptoms in moderate cases and up to twenty days in severe cases.Several testing methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is by detection of the virus' nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), or by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) from a nasopharyngeal swab.
Preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions.
While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus (and several vaccines for it have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have since initiated mass vaccination campaigns), the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. bhobba

    Covid Vaccines Reducing Infections

    Where I am in Australia, there has been a lot of media talk that Covid vaccines were useless in slowing the spread. It reduces the severity and death rate - no question. I have seen reports that if you have the Covid booster, you are significantly less likely to die...
  2. bhobba

    COVID Flurona - COVID-19 and influenza at the same time

    From our local paper here in Brisbane yesterday (behind a paywall, so precis follows) 'Almost half the 35 Queenslanders who have contracted flurona since January 1 have been admitted to hospital. There have been 35 confirmed cases of people infected with both the Covid-19 and influenza viruses...
  3. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Rolling Review of HIPRA COVID-19 Vaccine: Booster for Adults

    Source: https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/news/ema-starts-rolling-review-covid-19-vaccine-hipra-phh-1v See also: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05246137 Source: https://pharmaboardroom.com/interviews/carles-fabrega-managing-director-human-health-hipra/
  4. Astronuc

    Understanding SARS-Cov-2, Effects of Covid-19 and the Future

    The original article from Statnews, "Covid hasn’t given up all its secrets. Here are 6 mysteries experts hope to unravel" didn't sound right. SARS-Cov-2 is the virus, Covid-19 (Covid) is the illness (Coronavirus disease) or set of symptoms caused by the virus...
  5. Jarvis323

    Mild Covid-19 Linked to Brain Damage

    We've been hearing about brain damage caused by moderate and severe covid. A new study suggests even mild Covid causes brain damage. Pretty scary. https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/long-covid-even-mild-covid-linked-damage-brain-months-infection-rcna18959...
  6. T

    COVID And Now, here comes COVID-19 version BA.2, BA.4, BA.5,...

    Popular article referring to the BA.2 variant: Popular article: (many words, little data) https://www.cnn.com/2022/02/17/health/ba-2-covid-severity/index.html Preprint article referring to the BA.2 variant: Preprint article: (At 52 pages, too many words!)...
  7. M

    What's going on with the COVID cases in Alabama?

    The CDC reports a 450% increase in Covid cases in Marengo County, Alabama ( https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#county-view?list_select_state=all_states&list_select_county=all_counties&data-type=Cases&metric-cases=new_cases_week_over_week_percent_change ). The same thing is visible on New...
  8. Ygggdrasil

    COVID US Postal Service begins shipping free COVID tests

    Just an FYI to the American users of the forum: you can go to covidtests.gov to order free at-home rapid antigen tests. (source: NPR) Unfortunately, the tests will likely arrive after the peak of the Omicron wave (or at least I hope Omicron is on the decline by the time the tests start...
  9. T

    COVID Hospitalized COVID-19 Brain Damage greater than in Alzheimers....

    ...And even higher in deceased patients. Popular version: https://www.news10.com/news/covid-19-patients-show-more-signs-of-brain-damage-than-people-with-alzheimers-disease/ Research article: https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12556
  10. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Covid Variant B.1.640.2

    Source: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.24.21268174v1 Source: https://www.dw.com/en/new-corona-variant-identified-in-france/a-60329823
  11. dlgoff

    Map of COVID-19 cases and deaths

    I found this site with a map that shows COVID-19 cases and deaths. Scroll down to the bottom to see the US map. If you click on TOTAL at the top of that map, you can see the how many deaths...
  12. T

    COVID COVID-19 in Brain (and rest of body) up to 8 months (so far)

    It's a pre-print from a bunch of researchers at the NIH. https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-1139035/v1_covered.pdf?c=1640020576 No wonder Long Covid exists! ?:)
  13. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in adipose tissue

    Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in adipose tissue determines organ and systemic lipid metabolism in hamsters and humans Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413121006215?via%3Dihub Source (original German, quote via Google translate)...
  14. morrobay

    New Covid-19 Variant from South Africa (B.1.1.529)

    This variant is showing mutations on the spike protein that current vaccines are based on. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-11-26/what-we-know-about-the-new-virus-variant-that-s-rocking-markets And from Reuters...
  15. StevieTNZ

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

  16. Jarvis323

    Covid-19 Infecting Animals

    We've known that Sars-Cov-2 can be transmitted from humans to a wide range of animals. Now we are learning that it has widely spread through deer populations. https://gizmodo.com/uh-oh-the-coronavirus-has-been-spreading-widely-in-u-s-1847999600 Have we ever observed this kind of thing...
  17. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Electric field of moderate strength inactivates Covid-19 virus

    A science team from the university of Kassel (Germany) proved with a physical model, that a moderate electric field inactivates the Convid-19 virus. Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-25478-7 via...
  18. E

    COVID Do virus masks actually work?

    Do virus masks have any effect on preventing or reducing risk of infection from CV19? Have there been any studies on this?
  19. V

    B Convince Covid-19 Vaccine Efficiency Through Statistics

    I have been trying to convince someone that it is wrong to compare the death percentages of two different populations (percentage of death of Covid-19 cases per category: vaccinated vs unvaccinated) in an uncontrolled setting (i.e. real-world data), and conclude that the Covid-19 vaccine does...
  20. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Short telomeres and severe COVID-19

    Not the numerical age directly, but the length of the telomeres seems to decide, if one gets severe COVID-19. Source: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/ebiom/article/PIIS2352-3964(21)00306-6/fulltext see also: Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15771613/
  21. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Covid-19 mRNA/LNP Vaccine: understanding Biodistribution

    When mRNA/LNP vaccine gets injected into the upper arm (30 µg for BionTech/Pfizer, 100 µg for Moderna), small amounts get distributed to other organs. Source: https://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2021/01/21/mrna-vaccines-what-happens Source...
  22. jim mcnamara

    A more accessible explanation of Covid-19 R values (how transmissible)

    Understanding R0 Since it seems that most members visit General Discussion, probably this is a good place to post a topic like this, since everyone uses the term. And it would be nice to understand it. A guide from Nature.com meant for more general reading public...
  23. Jarvis323

    Data Sources for Vaccination and Covid-19 cases by Age

    Is there an up to data source of data on the number of vaccines administered in the US by age and sex? And similarly is there up to date information on the number of Covid-19 cases by age and sex, as well as number of adverse events from Covid-19 infection?
  24. Ygggdrasil

    COVID COVID-19's Impact on the Brain: New Evidence Emerges

    Here's a nice news piece from Nature summarizing various studies to find the underlying causes behind the neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19. In particular, the article highlights studies suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 can infect astrocytes in the brain, that SARS-CoV-2 can affect blood...
  25. G

    COVID Covid-19 test status after vaccination

    For someone who has been vaccinated against Covid-19, will a subsequent Covid test show up as positve? If so, how is it possible to have a negative test after being vaccinated?
  26. T

    COVID Significant Loss of Brain Grey Matter after COVID-19

    https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.11.21258690v1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.11.21258690 Full PDF (32 pages) at: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.11.21258690v1.full.pdf
  27. Evo

    COVID Get Vaccinated Against the Covid Delta Variant

    Get vaccinated! https://www.yahoo.com/news/the-covid-19-delta-variant-what-you-need-to-know-151035628.html...
  28. .Scott

    COVID How SARS-CoV-2 Spreads: MIT Team Investigates

    In an article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, an MIT team investigates how Covid-19 spreads: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/17/e2018995118 The article sites numerous other studies including those of super-spreader events and provides detailed models for the...
  29. jim mcnamara

    Covid-19 Neurological and Psychological sequelae

    This is a preliminary 'long haul' investigation, which appears to warrant further research into the medical consequences of Covid-19 patients after going home post-disease. "6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using...
  30. T

    COVID Common Cold Virus Suppresses COVID-19

    I'll trade a cold for Covid-19 any time! https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/a-common-cold-virus-may-help-fight-covid-19 Cheers, Tom
  31. Mary Conrads Sanburn

    COVID-19: The Path Forward - How the Science Will Drive Recovery

    COVID-19: The Path Forward - How the Science Will Drive Recovery https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=Covid-19-The+Path+Forward-How+the+Science+will+Drive+Recovery
  32. T

    COVID Reaction to COVID-19 Vaccine (or what to be prepared for)

    (This added about a month after this thread opened: It turns out I'm a real outlier for side effects to the vaccine, so don't let this post scare you off. My wife says every time I catch a cold or something that it hits me hard. Of course to me that is 'normal.' :doh:) A few days ago a...
  33. jim mcnamara

    COVID Understanding Covid-19 Long-Haul Symptoms & Treatment Strategies

    We need a thread on this topic. So here is a start: Covid long haulers have become a major issue with post-covid patients, mostly those with a minor or asymptomatic bout of Covid-19. More severe cases seem to not have the issue. Since the reported occurrence rate varies from 20% to over 50% of...
  34. E

    Has COVID-19 already peaked?

    Has the CV19 pandemic already peaked?
  35. Andrew Mason

    INKT (Invariant natural killer T cells) as a COVID-19 therapy

    I would be interested in hearing from the experts such as @Ygggdrasil about the prospects for a new therapy for COVID-19 using iNKT cells. According to this information page from the British Society for Immunology site: My interest was piqued by a recent announcement by AgenusBio (Agenus Inc...
  36. Astronuc

    COVID Monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19 patients

    Eli Lilly says its monoclonal antibody prevented Covid-19 infections in clinical trial https://www.statnews.com/2021/01/21/eli-lilly-says-its-monoclonal-antibody-prevented-covid-19-in-clinical-trial/ I heard that the infection was less severe and prevented some patients from requiring...
  37. I

    COVID My experience with the second Moderna COVID-19 vaccine shot

    I hope this helps some of you.
  38. Ygggdrasil

    COVID SARS-CoV-2 Mutations: B.1.1.7, B.1.351 & D614G Research

    Given the seeming increased transmissibility of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants being identified, I thought I'd start a general thread to collect and organize information on the various mutations to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. B.1.1.7 variant (aka 20B/501Y.V1, VOC 202012/01; originally identified in the...
  39. BillTre

    Dawn Wells dies of Covid-19 at 82

    Dawn Wells (Mary Ann on Gulligan's Island) dies of Covind-19 at 82!
  40. jim mcnamara

    COVID Vitamin D levels and Covid-19

    https://www.nutraingredients.com/Article/2020/12/21/Experts-send-Vitamin-D-and-Covid-19-open-letter-to-world-s-governments [tl;dr[] : Change suggestions of Vitamin D supplementation in the UK - higher - the health officialdom just came down hard against Vitamin D supplementation increases of...
  41. T

    How to make the most of a gap year during the Covid-19 era?

    How to make the most of a gap year during the Covid-19 era? =========================================================== Hello Everyone, Thanks for reviewing my thread. I am opening this thread to get insights into my future prospects for a career in Physics in the era of Covid-19. I...
  42. W

    COVID Covid-19 vaccines: excitement or fear?

    When I heard or read the news that giving vaccines will be mandatory, I have a feeling of getting paranoid about it and can’t control myself not to worry about it. Are you guys feel the same way around?
  43. T

    COVID Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19 - Nature Magazine

    Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19 33 pages. Free PDF download at: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-03065-y_reference.pdf "...we found evidence in support of a causal link from low expression of IFNAR2, and high expression of TYK2, to life-threatening disease...
  44. Dale

    COVID Pfizer/Moderna covid vaccine research papers

    Here is the official peer reviewed Pfizer vaccine study published in the New England Journal of Medicine: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577 This is a follow-up piece that describes what an emergency use authorization means and gives a perspective about follow-up...
  45. L

    MHB COVID-19 in a Small Town: Probability of Infection

    Kindly assist with these questions: Data showed that 22% of people in a small town was infected with the COVID-19 virus. A random sample of six residents from this town was selected. 1) What is the probability that exactly two of these residents was infected? 2) What is the probability that at...
  46. W

    COVID Far from over? [Covid-19]

    Though the Covid-19 pandemic is far from over, countries around the world are beginning to consider steps to ease their lockdown restrictions. With a return to some form of normality insight, do you guys think we will go back to our normal lifestyle?
  47. A

    COVID Precisely how does Pfizer's Covid-19 mRNA vaccine work?

    I have some questions about how the Pfizer mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (BTN for short) works. BTN codes for the SARS Covid-2 spike protein RNA sequence and is somehow delivered into cells, transcribed and then the proteins are delivered to the outer cell membrane or maybe just protrudes through...
  48. Astronuc

    COVID COVID-19 and Auto-Antibodies

    NBC News - 'Breakthrough finding' reveals why certain Covid-19 patients die https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/breakthrough-finding-reveals-why-certain-covid-19-patients-die-n1247576 Is this a major step in understanding how the virus works and eventually finding an improved...