Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, and loss of smell and taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms. Of those people who develop noticeable symptoms enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction). Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects (long COVID) for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.Transmission of COVID-19 occurs when people are exposed to virus-containing respiratory droplets and airborne particles exhaled by an infected person. Those particles may be inhaled or may reach the mouth, nose, or eyes of a person through touching or direct deposition (i.e. being coughed on). The risk of infection is highest when people are in close proximity for a long time, but particles can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors in poorly ventilated and crowded spaces. In those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hours. Touching a contaminated surface or object may lead to infection although this does not contribute substantially to transmission. People who are infected can transmit the virus to another person up to two days before they themselves show symptoms, as can people who do not experience symptoms. People remain infectious for up to ten days after the onset of symptoms in moderate cases and up to twenty days in severe cases.Several testing methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is by detection of the virus' nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), or by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) from a nasopharyngeal swab.
Preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions.
While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus (and several vaccines for it have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have since initiated mass vaccination campaigns), the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.
Where I am in Australia, there has been a lot of media talk that Covid vaccines were useless in slowing the spread. It reduces the severity and death rate - no question. I have seen reports that if you have the Covid booster, you are significantly less likely to die...
From our local paper here in Brisbane yesterday (behind a paywall, so precis follows)
'Almost half the 35 Queenslanders who have contracted flurona since January 1 have been admitted to hospital. There have been 35 confirmed cases of people infected with both the Covid-19 and influenza viruses...
The original article from Statnews, "Covid hasn’t given up all its secrets. Here are 6 mysteries experts hope to unravel" didn't sound right. SARS-Cov-2 is the virus, Covid-19 (Covid) is the illness (Coronavirus disease) or set of symptoms caused by the virus...
We've been hearing about brain damage caused by moderate and severe covid. A new study suggests even mild Covid causes brain damage. Pretty scary.
Popular article referring to the BA.2 variant:
Popular article: (many words, little data)
Preprint article referring to the BA.2 variant:
Preprint article: (At 52 pages, too many words!)...
The CDC reports a 450% increase in Covid cases in Marengo County, Alabama ( https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#county-view?list_select_state=all_states&list_select_county=all_counties&data-type=Cases&metric-cases=new_cases_week_over_week_percent_change ). The same thing is visible on New...
Just an FYI to the American users of the forum: you can go to covidtests.gov to order free at-home rapid antigen tests.
Unfortunately, the tests will likely arrive after the peak of the Omicron wave (or at least I hope Omicron is on the decline by the time the tests start...
...And even higher in deceased patients.
Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in adipose tissue determines organ and systemic lipid metabolism in hamsters and humans
Source (original German, quote via Google translate)...
This variant is showing mutations on the spike protein that current vaccines are based on. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-11-26/what-we-know-about-the-new-virus-variant-that-s-rocking-markets And from Reuters...
We've known that Sars-Cov-2 can be transmitted from humans to a wide range of animals. Now we are learning that it has widely spread through deer populations.
Have we ever observed this kind of thing...
A science team from the university of Kassel (Germany) proved with a physical model, that a moderate electric field inactivates the Convid-19 virus.
I have been trying to convince someone that it is wrong to compare the death percentages of two different populations (percentage of death of Covid-19 cases per category: vaccinated vs unvaccinated) in an uncontrolled setting (i.e. real-world data), and conclude that the Covid-19 vaccine does...
Not the numerical age directly, but the length of the telomeres seems to decide, if one gets severe COVID-19.
When mRNA/LNP vaccine gets injected into the upper arm (30 µg for BionTech/Pfizer, 100 µg for Moderna), small amounts get distributed to other organs.
Since it seems that most members visit General Discussion, probably this is a good place to post a topic like this, since everyone uses the term. And it would be nice to understand it.
A guide from Nature.com meant for more general reading public...
Is there an up to data source of data on the number of vaccines administered in the US by age and sex? And similarly is there up to date information on the number of Covid-19 cases by age and sex, as well as number of adverse events from Covid-19 infection?
Here's a nice news piece from Nature summarizing various studies to find the underlying causes behind the neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19. In particular, the article highlights studies suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 can infect astrocytes in the brain, that SARS-CoV-2 can affect blood...
Full PDF (32 pages) at:
In an article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, an MIT team investigates how Covid-19 spreads:
The article sites numerous other studies including those of super-spreader events and provides detailed models for the...
This is a preliminary 'long haul' investigation, which appears to warrant further research into the medical consequences of Covid-19 patients after going home post-disease.
"6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using...
(This added about a month after this thread opened: It turns out I'm a real outlier for side effects to the vaccine, so don't let this post scare you off. My wife says every time I catch a cold or something that it hits me hard. Of course to me that is 'normal.' :doh:)
A few days ago a...
We need a thread on this topic. So here is a start:
Covid long haulers have become a major issue with post-covid patients, mostly those with a minor or asymptomatic bout of Covid-19.
More severe cases seem to not have the issue.
Since the reported occurrence rate varies from 20% to over 50% of...
I would be interested in hearing from the experts such as @Ygggdrasil about the prospects for a new therapy for COVID-19 using iNKT cells. According to this information page from the British Society for Immunology site:
My interest was piqued by a recent announcement by AgenusBio (Agenus Inc...
Eli Lilly says its monoclonal antibody prevented Covid-19 infections in clinical trial
I heard that the infection was less severe and prevented some patients from requiring...
Given the seeming increased transmissibility of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants being identified, I thought I'd start a general thread to collect and organize information on the various mutations to the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
B.1.1.7 variant (aka 20B/501Y.V1, VOC 202012/01; originally identified in the...
[tl;dr : Change suggestions of Vitamin D supplementation in the UK - higher - the health officialdom just came down hard against Vitamin D supplementation increases of...
How to make the most of a gap year during the Covid-19 era?
Thanks for reviewing my thread.
I am opening this thread to get insights into my future prospects for a career in Physics in the era of Covid-19.
When I heard or read the news that giving vaccines will be mandatory, I have a feeling of getting paranoid about it and can’t control myself not to worry about it. Are you guys feel the same way around?
Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19
Free PDF download at:
"...we found evidence in support of a causal link from low expression of IFNAR2, and high expression of TYK2, to life-threatening disease...
Here is the official peer reviewed Pfizer vaccine study published in the New England Journal of Medicine:
This is a follow-up piece that describes what an emergency use authorization means and gives a perspective about follow-up...
Kindly assist with these questions:
Data showed that 22% of people in a small town was infected with the COVID-19 virus. A random sample of six residents from this town was selected.
1) What is the probability that exactly two of these residents was infected?
2) What is the probability that at...
Though the Covid-19 pandemic is far from over, countries around the world are beginning to consider steps to ease their lockdown restrictions. With a return to some form of normality insight, do you guys think we will go back to our normal lifestyle?
I have some questions about how the Pfizer mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (BTN for short) works.
BTN codes for the SARS Covid-2 spike protein RNA sequence and is somehow delivered into cells, transcribed and then the proteins are delivered to the outer cell membrane or maybe just protrudes through...
NBC News - 'Breakthrough finding' reveals why certain Covid-19 patients die
Is this a major step in understanding how the virus works and eventually finding an improved...