What is eruption: Definition and 5 Discussions

Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs, and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series.
There are three different types of eruptions:

Magmatic eruptions are the most well-observed type of eruption. They involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward.
Phreatic eruptions are driven by the superheating of steam due to the close proximity of magma. This type exhibits no magmatic release, instead causing the granulation of existing rock.
Phreatomagmatic eruptions are driven by the direct interaction of magma and water, as opposed to phreatic eruptions, where no fresh magma reaches the surface.Within these wide-defining eruptive types are several subtypes. The weakest are Hawaiian and submarine, then Strombolian, followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan. The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions; the strongest eruptions are called Ultra-Plinian. Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength. An important measure of eruptive strength is the Volcanic Explosivity Index an order-of-magnitude scale, ranging from 0 to 8, that often correlates to eruptive types
As of December 2022, the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program database of volcanic eruptions in the Holocene Epoch (the last 11,700 years) lists 9,901 confirmed eruptions from 859 volcanoes. The database also lists 1,113 uncertain eruptions and 168 discredited eruptions for the same time interval.

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  1. Flyboy

    Large eruption at Ruang volcano, Indonesia

    Well, that sounds spectacular and terrifying.
  2. Astronuc

    La Cumbre volcano eruption, Fernandina, Galapagos Islands

    https://apnews.com/article/ecuador-galapagos-volcano-599450a7a77ceb582edf1d7e5c07cb94 https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=353010 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Cumbre_(Gal%C3%A1pagos_Islands)
  3. Astronuc

    What Happened to the Missing Climbers at the 2023 Merapi Eruption?

    Mount Merapi is the most active of Indonesia's 130 volcanos. https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=263250 Activity had increased between October 2022 through March 2023 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Merapi May 2023 -...
  4. Astronuc

    Niijima (new island) eruption 2023, Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan

    The new island is near Iwo Jima, which is part of the Ogasawara Archipelago. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogasawara_Subprefecture Iwo Jima is one of the 'Volcano Islands' (火山列島, Kazan Rettō) or Iwo Islands (硫黄列島, Iō-rettō) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcano_Islands...
  5. Astronuc

    Klyuchevskaya Sopka volcano eruption - October/November 2023

    https://phys.org/news/2023-11-eruption-eurasia-tallest-volcano-ash.html https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=300260 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klyuchevskaya_Sopka A vent opened near the. base of the volcano. Pretty impressive plume.