real analysis

  1. C

    I Finite expansion of a fraction of functions

    I am having a problem finding the right order above and below to find the finite expansion of a fraction of usual functions assembled in complicated ways. For instance, a question asked to find the limit as x approaches 0 for the following function I know that to solve it we must first find...
  2. CoffeeNerd999

    I Do I need induction to prove that this sequence is monotonic?

    I think the initial assumptions would allow me to prove this without induction. Suppose ##(x_n)## is a real sequence that is bounded above. Define $$ y_n = \sup\{x_j | j \geq n\}.$$ Let ##n \in \mathbb{N}##. Then for all ##j \in \mathbb{N}## such that ##j \geq n + 1 > n## $$ x_{j} \leq y_n.$$...
  3. D

    I Rudin: theorem 1.21

    Summary: Rudin theorem 1.21 He has said that as t=X/(X+1) then t^n<t<1 then maximum value of t is 1. then in the next part he has given that t^n<t<x. as maximum value of t is less than 1 why has he given that t<x ?
  4. P

    Help with a real analysis problem

    I tried to prove this by absurd stating that there is no such ## \mu'## but i couldn't get anywhere...
  5. V

    A What type of function satisfy a type of growth condition?

    Let ##f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^n##. Is there any class of function and some type of "growth conditions" such that bounds like below can be established: \begin{equation} ||f(x)||\geq g\left( \text{dist}(x,\mathcal{X})\right), \end{equation} with ##\mathcal{X}:= \{x:f(x)=0\}## (zero...
  6. S

    Positive derivative implies growing function using Bolzano-Weierstrass

    I'm stuck on a proof involving the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem. Consider the following statement: $$f'(x)>0 \ \text{on} \ [a,b] \implies \forall x_1,x_2\in[a,b], \ f(x_1)<f(x_2) \ \text{for} \ x_1<x_2 $$ i.e. a positive derivative over an interval implies that the function is growing over the...
  7. NihalRi

    Function Continuity Proof in Real Analysis

    Homework Statement We've been given a set of hints to solve the problem below and I'm stuck on one of them Let f:[a,b]->R , prove, using the hints below, that if f is continuous and if f(a) < 0 < f(b), then there exists a c ∈ (a,b) such that f(c) = 0 Hint let set S = {x∈[a,b]:f(x)≤0} let c =...
  8. U

    I Boundedness of derivatives

    Hi forum. I'm trying to prove a claim from Mathematical Analysis I - Zorich since some days, but I succeeded only in part. The complete claim is: $$\left\{\begin{matrix} f\in\mathcal{C}^{(n)}(-1,1) \\ \sup_{x\in (-1,1)}|f(x)|\leq 1 \\ |f'(0)|>\alpha _n \end{matrix}\right. \Rightarrow \exists...
  9. Miguel

    Single Point Continuity - Spivak Ch.6 Q5

    Hey Guys, I posed this on Math Stackexchange but no one is offering a good answering. I though you guys might be able to help :) https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3049661/single-point-continuity-spivak-ch-6-q5
  10. NihalRi

    Proof about limit superior

    Homework Statement 2. Relevant equation Below is the definition of the limit superior The Attempt at a Solution I tried to start by considering two cases, case 1 in which the sequence does not converge and case 2 in which the sequence converges and got stuck with the second case. I know...
  11. H

    Prove that there exists a graph with these points such that...

    Homework Statement Let us have ##n \geq 3## points in a square whose side length is ##1##. Prove that there exists a graph with these points such that ##G## is connected, and $$\sum_{\{v_i,v_j\} \in E(G)}{|v_i - v_j|} \leq 10\sqrt{n}$$ Prove also the ##10## in the inequality can't be replaced...
  12. F

    Curve and admissible change of variable

    Homework Statement If I have the two curves ##\phi (t) = ( \cos t , \sin t ) ## with ## t \in [0, 2\pi]## ##\psi(s) = ( \sin 2s , \cos 2s ) ## with ## s \in [\frac{\pi}{4} , \frac{5 \pi}{4} ] ## My textbook says that they are equivalent because ##\psi(s) = \phi \circ g^{-1}(s) ## where ##...
  13. T

    Need help formalizing "T is an open set"

    Homework Statement Let ##S\subseteq \Bbb{R}## and ##T = \{ t\in \Bbb{R} : \exists s\in S, \vert t-s\vert \lt \epsilon\}## where ##\epsilon## is fixed. I need to show T is an open set. Homework Equations n/a The Attempt at a Solution Let ##x \in T##, then ##\exists \sigma \in S## such that ##x...
  14. T

    Image of a f with a local minima at all points is countable.

    Homework Statement Let ##f:\Bbb{R} \to \Bbb{R}## be a function such that ##f## has a local minimum for all ##x \in \Bbb{R}## (This means that for each ##x \in \Bbb{R}## there is an ##\epsilon \gt 0## where if ##\vert x-t\vert \lt \epsilon## then ##f(x) \leq f(t)##.). Then the image of ##f## is...
  15. A

    I Learning the theory of the n-dimensional Riemann integral

    I would like to learn (self-study) the theory behind the n-dimensional Riemann integral (multiple Riemann integrals, not Lebesgue integral). I am from Croatia and found lecture notes which Croatian students use but they are not suitable for self-study. The notes seem to be based on the book: J...
  16. Math_QED

    I Two questions about derivatives

    In Rudin, the derivative of a function ##f: [a,b] \to \mathbb{R}## is defined as: Let ##f## be defined (and real-valued) on ##[a,b]##. For any ##x \in [a,b]##, form the quotient ##\phi(t) = \frac{f(t) - f(x)}{t-x}\quad (a < t <b, t \neq x)## and define ##f'(x) = \lim_{t \to x} \phi(t)##, if the...
  17. M

    I Question regarding a sequence proof from a book

    I have a Dover edition of Louis Brand's Advanced Calculus: An Introduction to Classical Analysis. I really like this book, but find his proof of limit laws for sequences questionable. He first proves the sum of null sequences is null and that the product of a bounded sequence with a null...
  18. T

    Show that ##\frac{1}{x^2}## is not uniformly continuous on (0,∞).

    Homework Statement Show that ##f(x)=\frac{1}{x^2}## is not uniformly continuous at ##(0,\infty)##. Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution Given ##\epsilon=1##. We want to show that we can compute for ##x## and ##y## such that ##\vert x-y\vert\lt\delta## and at the same time ##\vert...
  19. T

    Distance of a point from a compact set in ##\Bbb{R}##

    Homework Statement Let ##K\neq\emptyset## be a compact set in ##\Bbb{R}## and let ##c\in\Bbb{R}##. Then ##\exists a\in K## such that ##\vert c-a\vert=\inf\{\vert c-x\vert : x\in K\}##. 2. Relevant results Any set ##K## is compact in ##\Bbb{R}## if and only if every sequence in ##K## has a...
  20. T

    Showing that an exponentiation is continuous -- Help please...

    Homework Statement Let ##p\in\Bbb{R}##. Then the function ##f:(0,\infty)\rightarrow \Bbb{R}## defined by ##f(x):=x^p##. Then ##f## is continuous. I need someone to check what I've done so far and I really need help finishing the last part. I am clueless as to how to show continuity for...
  21. S

    A Derivation of a complex integral with real part

    Hey, I tried to construct the derivation of the integral C with respect to Y: $$ \frac{\partial C}{\partial Y} = ? $$ $$ C = \frac{2}{\pi} \int_0^{\infty} Re(d(\alpha) \frac{exp(-i \cdot ln(f))}{i \alpha}) d \alpha $$ with $$d(\alpha) = exp(i \alpha (b + ln(Y)) - u) \cdot exp(v(\alpha) + z...
  22. T

    Regarding Real numbers as limits of Cauchy sequences

    Homework Statement Let ##x\in\Bbb{R}## such that ##x\neq 0##. Then ##x=LIM_{n\rightarrow\infty}a_n## for some Cauchy sequence ##(a_n)_{n=1}^{\infty}## which is bounded away from zero. 2. Relevant definitions and propositions: 3. The attempt at a proof: Proof:(by construction) Let...
  23. Eclair_de_XII

    If A is dense in [0,1] and f(x) = 0, x in A, prove ∫fdx = 0.

    Homework Statement "A set ##A\subset [0,1]## is dense in ##[0,1]## iff every open interval that intersects ##[0,1]## contains ##x\in A##. Suppose ##f:[0,1]\rightarrow ℝ## is integrable and ##f(x) = 0,x\in A## with ##A## dense in ##[0,1]##. Show that ##\int_{0}^{1}f(x)dx=0##." Homework...
  24. A

    B A Rational Game

    This post is to set forth a little game that attempts to demonstrate something that I find to be intriguing about the real numbers. The game is one that takes place in a theoretical sense only. It starts by assuming we have two pieces of paper. On each is a line segment of length two: [0,2]...
  25. anon3335

    Rudin POMA: chapter 4 problem 14

    Homework Statement Question: Let ##I = [0,1]##. Suppose ##f## is a continuous mapping of ##I## into ##I##. Prove that ##f(x) = x## for at least one ##x∈I##. Homework Equations Define first(##[A,B]##) = ##A## and second(##[A,B]##) = ##B## where ##[A,B]## is an interval in ##R##. The Attempt at...
  26. S

    Convergence of a double summation using diagonals

    Homework Statement Show that ##\sum_{k=2}^\infty d_k## converges to ##\lim_{n\to\infty} s_{nn}##. Homework Equations I've included some relevant information below: The Attempt at a Solution So far I've managed to show that ##\sum_{k=2}^\infty |d_k|## converges, but I don't know how to move...
  27. R

    A Solution of a weakly formulated pde involving p-Laplacian

    Let $$f:\Omega\to\mathbb{R}$$, where $$\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^d$$, and $$\Omega$$ is convex and bounded. Let $$\{x_i\}_{i=1,2,..N}$$ be a set of points in the interior of $$\Omega$$. $$d_i\in\mathbb{R}$,$i = 1,2,..N$$ I want to solve this weakly formulated pde: $$ 0=\frac{A}{N^{d+1}} \sum_i...
  28. DavideGenoa

    I Differentiation under the integral in retarded potentials

    Hello, friends! I know, thanks to @Hawkeye18 who proved this identity to me, that, if ##\phi:V\to\mathbb{R}## is a bounded measurable function defined on the bounded measurable domain ##V\subset\mathbb{R}^3##, then, for any ##k\in\{1,2,3\}##, $$\frac{\partial}{\partial r_k}\int_V...
  29. DavideGenoa

    I Laplacian of retarded potential

    Dear friends, I have found a derivation of the fact that, under the assumptions made in physics on ##\rho## (to which we can give the physical interpretation of charge density) the function defined by $$V(\mathbf{x},t):=\frac{1}{4\pi\varepsilon_0}\int_{\mathbb{R}^3}...
  30. Anshul23

    Light in a cup (Can you explain this phenomenon?)

    Can anyone explain the behavior of light I came across as I sat in my lounge this evening having a nice cup of Mocha . Hint ( I am sitting in a room with some led ceiling lights on) can you: 1.Guess how many Led lights I have on 2.Explain the appearance of light which is looking like a typical...
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