Read about real analysis | 93 Discussions | Page 1

  1. C

    I ##(a_n) ## has +10,-10 as partial limits. Then 0 is also a partial limit

    Problem: If sequence ## (a_n) ## has ##10-10## as partial limits and in addition ##\forall n \in \mathbb{N}.|a_{n+1} − a_{n} |≤ \frac{1}{n} ##, then 0 is a partial limit of ## (a_n) ##. Proof : Suppose that ## 0 ## isn't a partial limit of ## (a_n) ##. Then there exists ## \epsilon_0 > 0 ## and...
  2. Y

    Can I use recursion/induction to show that N <= x < N+1 for x real

    Homework Statement:: Show that for every real number ##x## there is exactly one integer ##N## such that ##N \leq x < N+1##. (This integer is called the integer part of ##x##, and is sometimes denoted ##N = \lfloor x\rfloor##.) Relevant Equations:: N/A I have tried reading the solution given...
  3. Y

    Is my proof that multiplication is well-defined for reals correct?

    I have referred to this page: https://taoanalysis.wordpress.com/2020/03/26/exercise-5-3-2/ to check my answer. The way I thought of the problem: I know ##xy = \mathrm{LIM}_{n\to\infty} a_n b_n## and I know ##x'y = \mathrm{LIM}_{n\to\infty} a'_n b_n##. Thus if ##xy=x'y##, maybe I can try showing...
  4. Y

    Purpose of \varepsilon' := \min\left(\frac{\varepsilon}{3M_2}, \frac\varepsilon 3\right)

    I refer to this page: https://taoanalysis.wordpress.com/2020/03/26/exercise-5-3-2/ I am having trouble understanding the purpose / motivation behind using the min as in ##\delta := \min\left(\frac{\varepsilon}{3M_1}, 1\right)## and ##\varepsilon' := \min\left(\frac{\varepsilon}{3M_2}...
  5. Y

    I Is ##\delta##-steady needed in this proof, given ##\epsilon##-steady

    In Tao's Analysis 1, Lemma 5.3.6, he claims that "We know that ##(a_n)_{n=1}^{\infty}## is eventually ##\delta##-steady for everyvalue of ##\delta>0##. This implies that it is not only ##\epsilon##-steady, ##\forall\epsilon>0##, but also ##\epsilon/ 2##-steady." My question is, why do we need...
  6. Y

    Proof that two equivalent sequences are both Cauchy sequences

    Let us just lay down some definitions. Both sequences are equivalent iff for each ##\epsilon>0## , there exists an N>0 such that for all n>N, ##|a_n-b_n|<\epsilon##. A sequence is a Cauchy sequence iff ##\forall\epsilon>0:(\exists N>0: (\forall j,k>N:|a_j-a_k|>\epsilon))##. We proceeded by...
  7. Adesh

    I Will ##M_i = m_i## if an interval is made vanishingly small?

    We define : $$M_i = sup \{f(x) : x \in [x_{i-1}, x_i ] \}$$ $$m_i = inf \{f(x) : x \in [ x_{i-1}, x_i ] \}$$ Now, if we make the length of the interval ##[x_{i-1}, x_i]## vanishingly small, then would we have ##M_i = m_i##? I have reasons for believing so because as the size of the interval is...
  8. Adesh

    I How to prove that ##f## is integrable given that ##g## is integrable?

    We have a function ##f: [a,b] \mapsto \mathbb R## (correct me if I'm wrong but the range ##\mathbb R## implies that ##f## is bounded). We have a partition ##P= \{x_0, x_1 , x_2 \cdots x_n \}## such that for any open interval ##(x_{i-1}, x_i)## we have $$ f(x) =g(x) $$ (##g:[a,b] \mapsto \mathbb...
  9. Adesh

    I Checking the integrability of a function using upper and lowers sums

    Hello and Good Afternoon! Today I need the help of respectable member of this forum on the topic of integrability. According to Mr. Michael Spivak: A function ##f## which is bounded on ##[a,b]## is integrable on ##[a,b]## if and only if $$ sup \{L (f,P) : \text{P belongs to the set of...
  10. O

    How to prove this statement about the derivative of a function

    My try: ##\begin{align} \dfrac{d {r^2}}{d r} \dfrac{\partial r}{\partial p} = \dfrac{\partial {r^2}}{\partial p} \tag1\\ \dfrac{\partial r}{\partial p} = \dfrac{\partial {r^2}}{\partial p} \dfrac{1}{\dfrac{d r^2}{d r}}=\dfrac{p-a\cos\theta}{r} \tag2\\ \end{align}## By chain rule...
  11. C

    I Finite expansion of a fraction of functions

    I am having a problem finding the right order above and below to find the finite expansion of a fraction of usual functions assembled in complicated ways. For instance, a question asked to find the limit as x approaches 0 for the following function I know that to solve it we must first find...
  12. CoffeeNerd999

    I Do I need induction to prove that this sequence is monotonic?

    I think the initial assumptions would allow me to prove this without induction. Suppose ##(x_n)## is a real sequence that is bounded above. Define $$ y_n = \sup\{x_j | j \geq n\}.$$ Let ##n \in \mathbb{N}##. Then for all ##j \in \mathbb{N}## such that ##j \geq n + 1 > n## $$ x_{j} \leq y_n.$$...
  13. D

    I Rudin: theorem 1.21

    Summary: Rudin theorem 1.21 He has said that as t=X/(X+1) then t^n<t<1 then maximum value of t is 1. then in the next part he has given that t^n<t<x. as maximum value of t is less than 1 why has he given that t<x ?
  14. P

    Help with a real analysis problem

    I tried to prove this by absurd stating that there is no such ## \mu'## but i couldn't get anywhere...
  15. V

    A What type of function satisfy a type of growth condition?

    Let ##f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^n##. Is there any class of function and some type of "growth conditions" such that bounds like below can be established: \begin{equation} ||f(x)||\geq g\left( \text{dist}(x,\mathcal{X})\right), \end{equation} with ##\mathcal{X}:= \{x:f(x)=0\}## (zero...
  16. S

    Positive derivative implies growing function using Bolzano-Weierstrass

    I'm stuck on a proof involving the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem. Consider the following statement: $$f'(x)>0 \ \text{on} \ [a,b] \implies \forall x_1,x_2\in[a,b], \ f(x_1)<f(x_2) \ \text{for} \ x_1<x_2 $$ i.e. a positive derivative over an interval implies that the function is growing over the...
  17. NihalRi

    Function Continuity Proof in Real Analysis

    Homework Statement We've been given a set of hints to solve the problem below and I'm stuck on one of them Let f:[a,b]->R , prove, using the hints below, that if f is continuous and if f(a) < 0 < f(b), then there exists a c ∈ (a,b) such that f(c) = 0 Hint let set S = {x∈[a,b]:f(x)≤0} let c =...
  18. U

    I Boundedness of derivatives

    Hi forum. I'm trying to prove a claim from Mathematical Analysis I - Zorich since some days, but I succeeded only in part. The complete claim is: $$\left\{\begin{matrix} f\in\mathcal{C}^{(n)}(-1,1) \\ \sup_{x\in (-1,1)}|f(x)|\leq 1 \\ |f'(0)|>\alpha _n \end{matrix}\right. \Rightarrow \exists...
  19. Miguel

    Single Point Continuity - Spivak Ch.6 Q5

    Hey Guys, I posed this on Math Stackexchange but no one is offering a good answering. I though you guys might be able to help :) https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3049661/single-point-continuity-spivak-ch-6-q5
  20. NihalRi

    Proof about limit superior

    Homework Statement 2. Relevant equation Below is the definition of the limit superior The Attempt at a Solution I tried to start by considering two cases, case 1 in which the sequence does not converge and case 2 in which the sequence converges and got stuck with the second case. I know...
  21. H

    Prove that there exists a graph with these points such that...

    Homework Statement Let us have ##n \geq 3## points in a square whose side length is ##1##. Prove that there exists a graph with these points such that ##G## is connected, and $$\sum_{\{v_i,v_j\} \in E(G)}{|v_i - v_j|} \leq 10\sqrt{n}$$ Prove also the ##10## in the inequality can't be replaced...
  22. F

    Curve and admissible change of variable

    Homework Statement If I have the two curves ##\phi (t) = ( \cos t , \sin t ) ## with ## t \in [0, 2\pi]## ##\psi(s) = ( \sin 2s , \cos 2s ) ## with ## s \in [\frac{\pi}{4} , \frac{5 \pi}{4} ] ## My textbook says that they are equivalent because ##\psi(s) = \phi \circ g^{-1}(s) ## where ##...
  23. T

    Need help formalizing "T is an open set"

    Homework Statement Let ##S\subseteq \Bbb{R}## and ##T = \{ t\in \Bbb{R} : \exists s\in S, \vert t-s\vert \lt \epsilon\}## where ##\epsilon## is fixed. I need to show T is an open set. Homework Equations n/a The Attempt at a Solution Let ##x \in T##, then ##\exists \sigma \in S## such that ##x...
  24. T

    Image of a f with a local minima at all points is countable.

    Homework Statement Let ##f:\Bbb{R} \to \Bbb{R}## be a function such that ##f## has a local minimum for all ##x \in \Bbb{R}## (This means that for each ##x \in \Bbb{R}## there is an ##\epsilon \gt 0## where if ##\vert x-t\vert \lt \epsilon## then ##f(x) \leq f(t)##.). Then the image of ##f## is...
  25. A

    I Learning the theory of the n-dimensional Riemann integral

    I would like to learn (self-study) the theory behind the n-dimensional Riemann integral (multiple Riemann integrals, not Lebesgue integral). I am from Croatia and found lecture notes which Croatian students use but they are not suitable for self-study. The notes seem to be based on the book: J...
  26. M

    I Two questions about derivatives

    In Rudin, the derivative of a function ##f: [a,b] \to \mathbb{R}## is defined as: Let ##f## be defined (and real-valued) on ##[a,b]##. For any ##x \in [a,b]##, form the quotient ##\phi(t) = \frac{f(t) - f(x)}{t-x}\quad (a < t <b, t \neq x)## and define ##f'(x) = \lim_{t \to x} \phi(t)##, if the...
  27. M

    I Question regarding a sequence proof from a book

    I have a Dover edition of Louis Brand's Advanced Calculus: An Introduction to Classical Analysis. I really like this book, but find his proof of limit laws for sequences questionable. He first proves the sum of null sequences is null and that the product of a bounded sequence with a null...
  28. T

    Show that ##\frac{1}{x^2}## is not uniformly continuous on (0,∞).

    Homework Statement Show that ##f(x)=\frac{1}{x^2}## is not uniformly continuous at ##(0,\infty)##. Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution Given ##\epsilon=1##. We want to show that we can compute for ##x## and ##y## such that ##\vert x-y\vert\lt\delta## and at the same time ##\vert...
  29. T

    Distance of a point from a compact set in ##\Bbb{R}##

    Homework Statement Let ##K\neq\emptyset## be a compact set in ##\Bbb{R}## and let ##c\in\Bbb{R}##. Then ##\exists a\in K## such that ##\vert c-a\vert=\inf\{\vert c-x\vert : x\in K\}##. 2. Relevant results Any set ##K## is compact in ##\Bbb{R}## if and only if every sequence in ##K## has a...
  30. T

    Showing that an exponentiation is continuous -- Help please...

    Homework Statement Let ##p\in\Bbb{R}##. Then the function ##f:(0,\infty)\rightarrow \Bbb{R}## defined by ##f(x):=x^p##. Then ##f## is continuous. I need someone to check what I've done so far and I really need help finishing the last part. I am clueless as to how to show continuity for...
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