What is Schwarzchild metric: Definition and 23 Discussions

In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric (also known as the Schwarzschild vacuum or Schwarzschild solution) is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero. The solution is a useful approximation for describing slowly rotating astronomical objects such as many stars and planets, including Earth and the Sun. It was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, and around the same time independently by Johannes Droste, who published his much more complete and modern-looking discussion only four months after Schwarzschild.
According to Birkhoff's theorem, the Schwarzschild metric is the most general spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the Einstein field equations. A Schwarzschild black hole or static black hole is a black hole that has neither electric charge nor angular momentum. A Schwarzschild black hole is described by the Schwarzschild metric, and cannot be distinguished from any other Schwarzschild black hole except by its mass.
The Schwarzschild black hole is characterized by a surrounding spherical boundary, called the event horizon, which is situated at the Schwarzschild radius, often called the radius of a black hole. The boundary is not a physical surface, and a person who fell through the event horizon (before being torn apart by tidal forces), would not notice any physical surface at that position; it is a mathematical surface which is significant in determining the black hole's properties. Any non-rotating and non-charged mass that is smaller than its Schwarzschild radius forms a black hole. The solution of the Einstein field equations is valid for any mass M, so in principle (according to general relativity theory) a Schwarzschild black hole of any mass could exist if conditions became sufficiently favorable to allow for its formation.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. Lluis Olle

    I Einstein brother-in-law elevator

    As personal curiosity, I want to calculate which is the difference in "travelled height" between a photon that goes across the width of an elevator - which is more or less 2[m] in my country - and a tiny mass particle that free-falls starting at the same "height" as the photon origin, and is...
  2. Sciencemaster

    I Gravitational Field Transformations Under Boosted Velocity

    Let's say we have some observer in some curved spacetime, and we have another observer moving relative to them with some velocity ##v## that is a significant fraction of ##c##. How would coordinates in this curved spacetime change between the two reference frames? For example, imagine a...
  3. Sciencemaster

    I Adapting Schwarzschild Metric for Nonzero Λ

    So, there are a fair amount of metrics designed with a zero value for the cosmological constant in mind. I was wondering if there was some method to modify metrics to account for a nonzero cosmological constant. Say, for instance, the Schwarzschild metric due to its relative simplicity. A...
  4. C

    Space-like trajectory in Schwarzschild spacetime

    I'm not sure how to approach this question. So I start off with the fact the path taken is space-like, $$ds^2>0$$ Input the Schwarzschild metric, $$−(1−\frac{2GM}{r})dt^2+(1−\frac{2GM}{r})^{−1}dr^2>0$$ Where I assume the mass doesn't move in angular direction. How should I continue?
  5. O

    Schwarzschild orbiting problem

    So the line element is given by $$ ds^2 = (1- \frac{R_s}{r})dt^2 - (1- \frac{R_s}{r})^{-1}dr^2 - r^2d\Omega ^2$$ The object is orbiting at constant radius ##r## in the plane ## \theta = \frac{\pi}{2}##. I am supposed to find the values of ##a## and ##b## in the 4-velocity given by: $$U =...
  6. S

    Schwarzschild coordinate time integral

    I have tried integration by parts where, ##c dt = -\frac{1}{\sqrt{r*}} \frac{r^{3/2} dr}{r - r*} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{(r*)^3}} \frac{r^{3/2} dr}{1 - \Big(\sqrt{\frac{r}{r*}} \Big)^2}## ##u = r^{3/2} \quad \quad dv = \frac{dr}{1 - \Big(\sqrt{\frac{r}{r*}} \Big)^2}## ##du = \frac{3}{2} r^{1/2} dr...
  7. T

    4-acceleration in a circular orbit around a black hole

    In a circular orbit, the 4-velocity is given by (I have already normalized it) $$ u^{\mu} = \left(1-\frac{3M}{r}\right)^{-\frac{1}{2}} (1,0,0,\Omega) $$Now, taking the covariant derivative, the only non vanishing term will be $$ a^{1} = \Gamma^{1}_{00}u^{0}u^{0} + \Gamma^{1}_{33}u^{3}u^{3} $$...
  8. E

    Space With Schwarzschild Metric

    This is a problem from Tensor Calculus:Barry Spain on # 69 Prove that a space with Schwarzschild's metric is an Einstein space, but not a space of constant curvature. The metric as given in the book is $$d\sigma^2=-\bigg(1-\frac{2m}{c^2r}\bigg)^{-1}dr^2-r^2d\theta^2-r^2\sin^2 \theta...
  9. P

    A Four velocity with the Schwarzchild metric

    I am trying to solve the following problem but have gotten stuck. Consider a massive particle moving in the radial direction above the Earth, not necessarily on a geodesic, with instantaneous velocity v = dr/dt Both θ and φ can be taken as constant. Calculate the components of the...
  10. A

    B Schwarzschild Metric: Non-Rotating Black Holes & Examples

    Hello I have been reading about Schwarzschild metric and scources what I read said that Schwarzschild metric is used to describe a non-rotating black holes. And what I can not understand is what can you calculate with it? It would be good if you give some examples where you can use it.
  11. haael

    A Do black holes lose hair in finite time?

    OK, so it's time to start a new thread. I heard many times that there exists only one black hole solution for a given mass and angular momentum, but I know already that this is not true. We all know that if we throw something into an existing black hole, its event horizon starts to ripple. So...
  12. D

    I Newtonian limit of Schwarzschild metric

    If I am asked to show that the tt-component of the Einstein equation for the static metric ##ds^2 = (1-2\phi(r)) dt^2 - (1+2\phi(r)) dr^2 - r^2(d\theta^2 + sin^2(\theta) d\phi^2)##, where ##|\phi(r)| \ll1## reduces to the Newton's equation, what exactly am I supposed to prove?
  13. F

    Kepler's Law in Schwarzchild metric

    Homework Statement Show Kepler's Third Law holds for circular Schwarzschild orbits. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Setting r' = 0 , \theta' = 0 and \theta = \pi / 2 , where the derivatives are with respect to the variable \lambda and setting c = 1 the Lagrangian is...
  14. S

    Exterior Schwarzschild Spacetime Defined

    The Schwarzschild spacetime is defined by the following line element \begin{equation*} ds^2 = - \left( 1 - \frac{2m}{r} \right)dt^2 + \frac{1}{1-\frac{2m}{r}}dr^2 + r^2 d\theta^2 + r^2\sin \theta^2 d\phi^2. \end{equation*} We can use the isotropic coordinates, obtained from the Schwarzschild...
  15. B

    Impact parameter of a photon in Schwarzchild metric

    Hi, I'm having trouble answering Question 9.20 in Hobson's book (Link: http://tinyurl.com/pjsymtd). This asks to prove that a photon will just graze the surface of a massive sphere if the impact parameter is b = r(\frac{r}{r-2\mu})^\frac{1}{2} So far I have used the geodeisic equations...
  16. B

    4 velocity in Schwarzchild metric

    How do we calculate the 4 velocity of a particle that is projected radially downwards at velocity u at a radius ra? The condition on 4 velocity is that gμνvμvν = 1 which implies that at radius ra we have ga00(v0)2 + ga11(v1)2 = 1 (eq 1) So if we start from xμ = (t,r) we get vμ = (1/√g00 ...
  17. MattRob

    Validity of Schwarzschild Metric in Real BHs

    So, I've been reading through "Exploring Black Holes: Introduction to General Relativity" by Wheeler and Taylor, and I've had some ideas I wanted to pursue and do some research in regarding trajectories within the event horizon. In this, I'd like to have the mathematical tools to investigate...
  18. binbagsss

    Schwarzchild metric spherically symmetric space or s-t?

    This is probably a stupid question, but, is the Schwarzschild metric spherically symmetric just with respect to space or space-time? Looking at the derivation, my thoughts are that it is just wrt space because the derivation is use of 3 space-like Killing vectors , these describe 2-spheres, and...
  19. S

    Most proper time in Schwarzchild metric

    Hi In the Schwarzschild metric, the proper time is given by c^{2}dτ^{2} = (1- \frac{2\Phi}{c^2})c^2 dt^2 - r^2 dθ^2 with where \Phi is the gravitational potential. I have left out the d\phi and dr terms. If there is a particle moving in a circle of radius R at constant angular velocity ω...
  20. Z

    Question about time dilation in the schwarzchild metric?

    My first question is the following. Does the radial component of the schwarzchild metric account for just the radius of the body in study or is it the distance between the body and the observer, where the body is treated as a singularity (Point mass particle)? My second question is about how...
  21. S

    Plotting Planets Orbits around Sun using Schwarzchild Metric

    Hello, I'm currently studying general relatively and am trying to plot orbits of planets around the sun using the schwarzchild metric. I've worked out the geodesic equations, working with c=1 to simplify things, and written a MATLAB script to plot trajectories, but I'm struggling to work out...
  22. R

    Schwarzchild metric - rescaled coordinates

    Schwarzschild metric - rescaled coordinates Hi, I've been working through a problem (no. 14 in ch. 9) of Alan Lightman's book of GR problems. I can't understand one of the results that are stated without proof. Basically it amounts to a rescaling of coordinates. I know that to first order...
  23. J

    Is the Schwarzchild Metric Accurate in Predicting Black Holes?

    hi recently i attended a lecture where a current researcher from my university was talking about black holes and the schwarzchild metric. basically he was saying no current theory predicts black holes and the schwarzchild solution is not actually correct, his solution was accepted because...