Schwarzchild metric Definition and 13 Discussions

In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric (also known as the Schwarzschild vacuum or Schwarzschild solution) is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero. The solution is a useful approximation for describing slowly rotating astronomical objects such as many stars and planets, including Earth and the Sun. It was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, and around the same time independently by Johannes Droste, who published his much more complete and modern-looking discussion only four months after Schwarzschild.
According to Birkhoff's theorem, the Schwarzschild metric is the most general spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the Einstein field equations. A Schwarzschild black hole or static black hole is a black hole that has neither electric charge nor angular momentum. A Schwarzschild black hole is described by the Schwarzschild metric, and cannot be distinguished from any other Schwarzschild black hole except by its mass.
The Schwarzschild black hole is characterized by a surrounding spherical boundary, called the event horizon, which is situated at the Schwarzschild radius, often called the radius of a black hole. The boundary is not a physical surface, and a person who fell through the event horizon (before being torn apart by tidal forces), would not notice any physical surface at that position; it is a mathematical surface which is significant in determining the black hole's properties. Any non-rotating and non-charged mass that is smaller than its Schwarzschild radius forms a black hole. The solution of the Einstein field equations is valid for any mass M, so in principle (according to general relativity theory) a Schwarzschild black hole of any mass could exist if conditions became sufficiently favorable to allow for its formation.

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  1. Sciencemaster

    I How do gravitational fields transform under a boost in velocity?

    Let's say we have some observer in some curved spacetime, and we have another observer moving relative to them with some velocity ##v## that is a significant fraction of ##c##. How would coordinates in this curved spacetime change between the two reference frames? For example, imagine a...
  2. Sciencemaster

    I Could one adapt the Schwarzschild metric to a nonzero Λ?

    So, there are a fair amount of metrics designed with a zero value for the cosmological constant in mind. I was wondering if there was some method to modify metrics to account for a nonzero cosmological constant. Say, for instance, the Schwarzschild metric due to its relative simplicity. A...
  3. C

    Space-like trajectory in Schwarzschild spacetime

    I'm not sure how to approach this question. So I start off with the fact the path taken is space-like, $$ds^2>0$$ Input the Schwarzschild metric, $$−(1−\frac{2GM}{r})dt^2+(1−\frac{2GM}{r})^{−1}dr^2>0$$ Where I assume the mass doesn't move in angular direction. How should I continue?
  4. O

    Schwarzschild orbiting problem

    So the line element is given by $$ ds^2 = (1- \frac{R_s}{r})dt^2 - (1- \frac{R_s}{r})^{-1}dr^2 - r^2d\Omega ^2$$ The object is orbiting at constant radius ##r## in the plane ## \theta = \frac{\pi}{2}##. I am supposed to find the values of ##a## and ##b## in the 4-velocity given by: $$U =...
  5. S

    Schwarzschild coordinate time integral

    I have tried integration by parts where, ##c dt = -\frac{1}{\sqrt{r*}} \frac{r^{3/2} dr}{r - r*} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{(r*)^3}} \frac{r^{3/2} dr}{1 - \Big(\sqrt{\frac{r}{r*}} \Big)^2}## ##u = r^{3/2} \quad \quad dv = \frac{dr}{1 - \Big(\sqrt{\frac{r}{r*}} \Big)^2}## ##du = \frac{3}{2} r^{1/2} dr...
  6. T

    4-acceleration in a circular orbit around a black hole

    In a circular orbit, the 4-velocity is given by (I have already normalized it) $$ u^{\mu} = \left(1-\frac{3M}{r}\right)^{-\frac{1}{2}} (1,0,0,\Omega) $$ Now, taking the covariant derivative, the only non vanishing term will be $$ a^{1} = \Gamma^{1}_{00}u^{0}u^{0} + \Gamma^{1}_{33}u^{3}u^{3}...
  7. E

    Space With Schwarzschild Metric

    This is a problem from Tensor Calculus:Barry Spain on # 69 Prove that a space with Schwarzschild's metric is an Einstein space, but not a space of constant curvature. The metric as given in the book is $$d\sigma^2=-\bigg(1-\frac{2m}{c^2r}\bigg)^{-1}dr^2-r^2d\theta^2-r^2\sin^2 \theta...
  8. P

    A Four velocity with the Schwarzchild metric

    I am trying to solve the following problem but have gotten stuck. Consider a massive particle moving in the radial direction above the Earth, not necessarily on a geodesic, with instantaneous velocity v = dr/dt Both θ and φ can be taken as constant. Calculate the components of the...
  9. A

    B Schwarzschild Metric

    Hello I have been reading about Schwarzschild metric and scources what I read said that Schwarzschild metric is used to describe a non-rotating black holes. And what I can not understand is what can you calculate with it? It would be good if you give some examples where you can use it.
  10. haael

    A Do black holes lose hair in finite time?

    OK, so it's time to start a new thread. I heard many times that there exists only one black hole solution for a given mass and angular momentum, but I know already that this is not true. We all know that if we throw something into an existing black hole, its event horizon starts to ripple. So...
  11. D

    I Newtonian limit of Schwarzschild metric

    If I am asked to show that the tt-component of the Einstein equation for the static metric ##ds^2 = (1-2\phi(r)) dt^2 - (1+2\phi(r)) dr^2 - r^2(d\theta^2 + sin^2(\theta) d\phi^2)##, where ##|\phi(r)| \ll1## reduces to the Newton's equation, what exactly am I supposed to prove?
  12. S

    The exterior Schwarzschild spacetime

    The Schwarzschild spacetime is defined by the following line element \begin{equation*} ds^2 = - \left( 1 - \frac{2m}{r} \right)dt^2 + \frac{1}{1-\frac{2m}{r}}dr^2 + r^2 d\theta^2 + r^2\sin \theta^2 d\phi^2. \end{equation*} We can use the isotropic coordinates, obtained from the Schwarzschild...
  13. MattRob

    The Validity of the Schwarzschild Metric Inside of a Real BH

    So, I've been reading through "Exploring Black Holes: Introduction to General Relativity" by Wheeler and Taylor, and I've had some ideas I wanted to pursue and do some research in regarding trajectories within the event horizon. In this, I'd like to have the mathematical tools to investigate...