# Bandwidth & GFSK: Calculate Data Rate & Increase Frequency?

• sonurobots
In summary, a radio channel has a bandwidth just like a low-pass filter has a cut-off frequency. The data rate through a low pass filter or radio channel cannot be greater than the actual bandwidth of that channel. To measure the frequency of a 1 MHz sinewave to one part in 1 thousand requires a 1 MHz * 1kHz = 1 GHz clock. Now a nice clean sinewave has a measurable frequency, but when you add other noise to that sinewave it is no longer possible to identify where the critical zero crossings are to within 1 nanosecond. To find those zero crossings you must fit a sine wave to the received signal, that will take one whole cycle per measurement. Detection is
sonurobots
Hello, I have a doubt how data rate is calculated in GFSK ? I am new to RF. so please describe.my second question is why can"t we change frequency faster for high data rate? a typical 433Mhz transceiver hardly gives 100Kbits only why?

Welcome to PF.
The FSK data must pass through the very narrow 433MHz channel allocation without causing co-channel interference. The Gaussian filter is probably being used to remove the broadband “key clicks” generated by the bit transitions.

if i am not wrong, we need at least 2 frequencies in FSK .why can't we use two nearer frequencies for that let's say 433,000,005= 1 & 433,000,006=0 .can a frequency detector detect that much change?

Yes it can, but with only a 1Hz difference you would have to sample for one entire second before you knew for sure which it was.
Data rate is proportional to the bandwidth.
1Hz BW is about 1 bit per second.
100 kHz BW is about 100 kbps.

First of all ,thanks for your immediate response and sharing your wisdom. in the above post you said i have to wait for 1 second to detect the frequency I understand that but is this possible to measure the wavelength so that even a single wave will give the frequency & i will not have to wait for that long.

How do you measure the period, (not wavelength), to an accuracy of one part in 433 million and in the presence of system noise?

433 MHz= 433 waves in 1 us===> 216.5 waves in 0.5 us.what if i take those 216 waves and calculate the time period from them hence frequency ? if it's impossible why? if possible it would give a huge data rate. since 0.5us for each bit then 2bits in 1us=>2Kbits in 1ms=>2Mbits in 1 second.it's still far better than 100kbits. Note these are my theoretical assumptions .

Last edited:
sonurobots said:
433 MHz= 433 waves in 1 us===> 216.5 waves in 0.5 us.what if i take those 216 waves and calculate the time period from them hence frequency ? if it's impossible why? if possible it would give a huge data rate. since 0.5us for each bit then 2bits in 1us=>2Kbits in 1ms=>2Mbits in 1 second.it's still far better than 100kbits. Note these are my theoretical assumptions.
Fundamentally, a radio channel has a bandwidth just like a low-pass filter has a cut-off frequency. The data rate through a low pass filter or radio channel cannot be greater than the actual bandwidth of that channel.

To measure the frequency of a 1 MHz sinewave to one part in 1 thousand requires a 1 MHz * 1kHz = 1 GHz clock. Now a nice clean sinewave has a measurable frequency, but when you add other noise to that sinewave it is no longer possible to identify where the critical zero crossings are to within 1 nanosecond. To find those zero crossings you must fit a sine wave to the received signal, that will take one whole cycle per measurement. Detection is multiplication which is correlation of the received signal with a reference waveform.

One bit every 0.5us = 2 M bits per second, which requires a 2 MHz bandwidth. Unfortunately the channels allocated on the 433MHz band are only 25 kHz apart, spread over 1.7 MHz. What happens to the other 68 users when your data interferes with their low data rate signals.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LPD433

If you want higher data rates then you need more bandwidth. That requires a microwave link or an optic fibre. There is a big difference between the low data rate links between distributed microcontrollers and an 11 Mbit/sec datalink on 2.45GHz.

1 person
Thanks a lot for all your posts.will you please recommend me any books where i can read more about RF ,modulation & other RF related stuffs.Thanks again for clearing my doubts.

These days, everything to do with modulation seems to have become digital signal processing, so that is now the best approach. Your experience, field of interest and mathematical ability will dictate the best reference.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_signal_processing

## What is bandwidth and how does it affect data rate?

Bandwidth refers to the range of frequencies that can be transmitted over a communication channel. It directly affects data rate because a wider bandwidth allows for more data to be transmitted simultaneously, resulting in a higher data rate.

## How do you calculate data rate using bandwidth and GFSK modulation?

Data rate can be calculated using the formula: data rate = 2 x bandwidth x log2 (M), where M is the number of modulation states used in GFSK. For example, if the bandwidth is 20 kHz and M is 2, the data rate would be 80 kbps.

## Can increasing the frequency of a GFSK signal improve data rate?

Yes, increasing the frequency of a GFSK signal can improve data rate because it allows for more modulation states to be used, resulting in a higher data rate. However, this increase in frequency may also lead to a decrease in signal quality.

## What factors can impact the data rate of a GFSK signal?

Some factors that can impact the data rate of a GFSK signal include bandwidth, modulation index, signal-to-noise ratio, and channel interference. These factors can affect the number of modulation states that can be used and the overall quality of the signal.

## How can data rate be increased in a GFSK system?

Data rate can be increased in a GFSK system by using a wider bandwidth, increasing the modulation index, or reducing channel interference. However, these changes may also impact the quality of the signal, so it is important to find a balance between data rate and signal quality.

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