# Derivation of Divergence in Cartesian Coordinates

• I
• Zexuo
In summary, the authors of Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory provide a coordinate-system-independent definition of the divergence of a vector field and derive the Cartesian form using first order Taylor expansions. They show the terms as functions varying over their respective surfaces instead of being evaluated at a point, but the integrals cancel out and there is no need for these approximations.
Zexuo
In section 1-5 of the third edition of Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory by Reitz, Milford and Christy, the authors give a coordinate-system-independent definition of the divergence of a vector field:

$$\nabla\cdot\mathbf{F} = \lim_{V\rightarrow 0}\frac{1}{V}\int_S\mathbf{F\cdot n}da$$

with ##S## the surface enclosing the volume ##V##.

In deriving the Cartesian form of the divergence they use ##\Delta x\Delta y\Delta z## as a volume element over which to make what appear to be first order Taylor expansions:

$$F_x(x_0 + \Delta x, y, z) = F_x(x_0, y, z) + \Delta x\frac{\partial F_x}{\partial x}\Bigg\arrowvert_{x_0, y, z}$$
$$F_y(x, y_0 + \Delta y, z) = F_y(x, y_0, z) + \Delta y\frac{\partial F_y}{\partial y}\Bigg\arrowvert_{x, y_0, z}$$
$$F_z(x, y, z_0 + \Delta z) = F_z(x, y, z_0) + \Delta z\frac{\partial F_z}{\partial z}\Bigg\arrowvert_{x, y, z_0}$$

I say "appear to be" because the zero order term and all derivatives in a Taylor expansion are evaluated at the initial point ##(x_0, y_0, z_0)##. In the next step they plug the above and ##\mathbf{F}(x_0, y_0, z_0)## into the divergence equation, with the six sides of ##\Delta x\Delta y\Delta z## as the surface:

$$\nabla\cdot\mathbf{F} = \lim_{V\rightarrow 0}\frac{1}{\Delta x\Delta y\Delta z}\Bigg\{\int F_x(x_0, y, z)dydz + \Delta x\Delta y\Delta z\frac{\partial F_x}{\partial x}\\ + \int F_y(x, y_0, z)dxdz + \Delta x\Delta y\Delta z\frac{\partial F_y}{\partial y}\\ + \int F_z(x, y, z_0)dxdy + \Delta x\Delta y\Delta z\frac{\partial F_z}{\partial z}\\ - \int F_x(x_0, y, z)dydz - \int F_y(x, y_0, z)dxdz - \int F_z(x, y, z_0)dxdy\Bigg\}$$

Is there anything to leaving terms in the form ##F_x(x_0, y, z)## instead of ##F_x(x_0, y_0, z_0)## and ##\int F_x(x_0, y, z)dydz## instead of ##F_x(x_0, y_0, z_0)\Delta y\Delta z##, especially since the partials are treated like constants which get multiplied by the areas of the sides outright?

If you replaced then you would need to worry about your integration introducing terms that do not vanish in the limit, but the integrals cancel so why worry about doing an approximation that you will need to justify when you already have the result?

If, in composing the Taylor expansion, you evaluate all the zero-order terms and partials at the point ##(x_0, y_0, z_0)## then would not the integrals have only constants over which to integrate, leaving only those constants multiplied by the area? But the expansions I copied above show the terms as functions varying over their respective surfaces. I understand that the integrals get negated but I balked at seeing the terms presented as functions varying over a surface instead of evaluated at a point and therefore constant.

Note that they show the partials in the first set of equations also as functions of two of the three space dimensions (eg ##\frac{\partial F_x}{\partial x}\Big\arrowvert_{x_0, y, z}## instead of ##\frac{\partial F_x}{\partial x}\Big\arrowvert_{x_0, y_0, z_0}##), but they get treated as constants in the second set.

Have I read too much into the symbols here? Two other similar discussions of the divergence, in Arfken and Boas, don't have this problem.

Zexuo said:
then would not the integrals have only constants over which to integrate
No. The first order corrections in y and z would depend on y and z for the constant x sides and so on. The point renains that there is zero reason to introduce those approximations because those terms cancel exactly with each other anyway.

OK. The ##F_x(x_0, y, z)## term must subsume ##(y-y_0)\frac{\partial F_x}{\partial y}\Big\arrowvert_{x_0, y_0, z_0}## and ##(z-z_0)\frac{\partial F_x}{\partial z}\Big\arrowvert_{x_0, y_0, z_0}##. Thanks.

## 1. What is the concept of divergence in Cartesian coordinates?

The concept of divergence in Cartesian coordinates refers to the measure of the flow of a vector field out of a given point in space. It is represented by the dot product of the vector field with the del operator (∇).

## 2. How is divergence calculated in Cartesian coordinates?

In Cartesian coordinates, divergence is calculated by taking the partial derivatives of each component of the vector field with respect to their respective coordinate variables (x, y, and z) and summing them together.

## 3. What is the physical significance of divergence?

Divergence has physical significance in fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, and other fields where the flow of a vector field is important. It can indicate the presence of sources or sinks in the field, and can also be used to determine the strength of the field at a given point.

## 4. What is the relationship between divergence and flux?

There is a direct relationship between divergence and flux, as divergence can be interpreted as the flux per unit volume in a small region around a given point. In other words, divergence measures the rate at which the flux is flowing out of a point in space.

## 5. How is divergence used in real-world applications?

Divergence is used in various real-world applications, such as in fluid dynamics to study the flow of fluids, in electromagnetism to analyze the behavior of electric and magnetic fields, and in computer graphics to create realistic simulations of fluid and smoke movement. It is also used in mathematical modeling and simulations in engineering and physics.

• Calculus
Replies
10
Views
2K
• Calculus
Replies
2
Views
1K
• Calculus
Replies
1
Views
1K
• Linear and Abstract Algebra
Replies
1
Views
815
• Calculus
Replies
12
Views
2K
• Calculus
Replies
1
Views
1K
Replies
1
Views
852
• Calculus
Replies
2
Views
1K
• Classical Physics
Replies
3
Views
603
• Calculus
Replies
6
Views
1K