Dia, para & ferromagnetic materials

In summary, ferromagnetic materials can exist in any state, but only when there is an external field. Para materials have few permanent dipoles and are less likely to remain permanent, while diamagnets only exist to oppose an external field in accordance with Lenz's law.
  • #1
Roodles01
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From another thread I think I understand that ferromagnetic material can exist any time, but dia & para magnetic materials exist only when there is an external field.

My overview is
Macroscopically ferro materials have to align their domains & can remain aligned when field is removed, leaving permanent dipoles.
Para materials have relatively few permanent dipoles & are less likely to remain permanent.
Diamagnetism only exists to oppose any external field in accordance with Lenz's law.

Could someone confirm or clarify this set of statements, please.
 
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  • #2
Well, materials can be in ferro-, dia- or paramagnetic states.

Of these, only ferromagnets will carry a macroscopic magnetic moment.

Paramagnets have lots of microscopic (atomic) magnetic moments, but they are completely disordered, each moment only reacts to an external magnetic field.
Therefore the material is only magnetized in the presence of an external field.

Diamagnets are similar, only that the net magnetic moment per atom is zero, and the moments appear only in the presence of an external field.

Ferromagnets have lots of atomic magnetic moments like paramagnets. But unlike paramagnets, these moments interact with each other. They "talk to each other", aligning all in the same direction within a certain region (=domain). So each domain has magnetization. From one domain to another, they tend to be aligned in different directions, tominimize the magnetic field they generate (because that costs energy). But with an external field these domains can all be pulled into the same orientation.
Hard ferromagnets will then keep that orientation, whereas the domains in soft ferromagnets will re-align randomly when the external field is removed.

On top of these 3 types you can also get antiferromagnets where the atomic magnetic moments are aligned - but instead of being all parallel they form patterns like up-down where the sum of the microscopic moments is zero, so that there is no macroscopic magnetization.
 

Related to Dia, para & ferromagnetic materials

1. What is the difference between dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials?

Dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials are all types of magnetic materials, but they differ in the way they respond to external magnetic fields. Dia and para materials are non-magnetic, meaning they do not have a permanent magnetic moment. Ferromagnetic materials, on the other hand, have a permanent magnetic moment and can be magnetized.

2. How do dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials behave in the presence of an external magnetic field?

Dia materials do not respond to external magnetic fields and remain non-magnetic. Para materials have a weak and temporary response to the field, while ferromagnetic materials have a strong and permanent response, becoming magnetized in the direction of the field.

3. What are some examples of dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials?

Some examples of dia materials include copper, aluminum, and gold. Para materials include aluminum, platinum, and oxygen. Ferromagnetic materials include iron, nickel, and cobalt.

4. How are dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials used in everyday life?

Dia and para materials are used in a variety of technologies, such as computer memory, electric motors, and speakers. Ferromagnetic materials are used in magnets, generators, and transformers.

5. Can dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials be converted into each other?

No, dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials cannot be converted into each other. They are distinct types of materials with different properties and cannot be transformed into one another.

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