no, the curved side is the negative sideThe curved line on the cap symbol is positive.
yes, but can you see what is making the base side of the transistor and C1 more positive than the other (left ) side of C1 ?Also C1 is connected to the base of the 2222 which is positive and so is the collector.
yes ... primary purposes are interstage AC (signal) coupling and DC blocking, as is C2. C4 is DC blocking as we don't want a DC offset voltage appearing across a speakerC1 is preventing DC from going back to the input I assume.
you could, but a bit of basic circuit analysis will tell you what points/nodes are more positive than others.would measure with a DMM or a scope to ground...I assume that is what you are asking.
OK, no prob ... .it's called a voltage divider ... sound familiar ?No, I don't recognise the config but I assume the following.
no, they don't help achieve that, only C1 passes the incoming AC signal to Q1We need to get AC to the base of Q1 and R2 and R3 makes it go there.
Yes, but for a very specific purposeWe need DC to get to the base of Q1 and C1 ,R2, and R3 makes it go there.
for a standard silicon diode or transistor it is approx. 0.7 V ( + - 0.05V )Ok...so a NPN transistors need a certain positive voltage at it's base to conduct. Correct? What would be a nominal voltage?
the principle is similar ... tubes are basically voltage operating devices where transistors are current driven devicesThe base on a transistor is like the grid on a tube and could be biased positive or negative depending on the type of transistor????
lets now go back to that earlier QAre the two diodes used to prevent damage from hooking up the power backwards? They also produce a voltage drop of around 1.4 v at the collector of Q4 I assume.
once the voltage across the PN (B-E) junction reaches 0.7 V or higher, current will flow.Just to be clear, is it the voltage or the current that keeps the base to collector open?