Please help! Also, please correct any misunderstandings which I have. I have read about electricity basics and what happens on the atomic level until I have read ideas which compete with each other. 1 - I've read that the word electricity applies to particles with a negative charge (more electrons), and also sometimes a positive charge (less electrons). I know that mostly electricity is the act of balancing out electrons between a point with a surplus of electrons (negative charge) and a point with a shortage of electrons (positive charge). So, does that mean that on a battery, the side with the (-) sign is the side that has the surplus of electrons ---- or, does the side with the (+) sign have the surplus of electrons? When a load is applied, do the electrons balance out by moving from the (-) to the (+) or the other way around? I've read that, well the electrons flow one way, but the charge flows the other. That does not make sense. I can see that the side with a shortage of electrons is positively charged, but I thought the electrons are what would move the balance everything out - not protons. Therefore, nothing moves from the side with a shortage (positive charge), just the side with a surplus (negative charge). Is that correct? 2 - Resistance - Exactly what causes resistance in a wire or a load, atomically? 3 - Return path - If moving electrons are indeed the source of the work being done, do they all move through the load and make it back to the other terminal? Otherwise, where do they go? I know electricity lights a bulb and some energy is transformed into light and heat. How does that effect the electrons or other particles in the conductor? 4 - More practical - Is a dead battery basically a battery with a balanced charge through both sides? 5 - A/C Electricity - Does some of the electricity go through your home appliances and return to the power company? If so, can they reuse that?