1. Limited time only! Sign up for a free 30min personal tutor trial with Chegg Tutors
    Dismiss Notice
Dismiss Notice
Join Physics Forums Today!
The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

Electromagnetic spectrum/(dark)matter/4 fundamental forces

  1. Sep 27, 2015 #1
    OK, I need some help understanding some stuff.

    The way I see it: you've got 4 fundamental forces in physics right? I believe these are gravity, electromagnetic, strong interaction and weak interaction.

    The electromagnetic spectrum is basically waves with photons (photons in all of the different ones, such as gamma and radio waves??). Once you reach one end of the spectrum, as in gamma rays, the next one up is beta waves (electrons) and then alpha waves (some kind of helium with bits missing iirc?). Here you're already essentially talking about matter. But, is a photon counted as matter?

    OK so the EM spectrum seems to be extending into matter along gamma/beta/alpha waves. And, we know energy and matter are interchangeable anyway. But eventually, all matter decomposes - has a half-life. And then does it revert back into the EM spectrum? Is it actually like a EM/matter spectrum which might actually be a circle or a horseshoe rather than just a spectrum?

    Because like, the radioactive metals that last for a fraction of a second before they decompose, well that's where I'd see this spectrum looping back on itself... or am I crazy?

    And then back to the 4 fundamental forces... and dark matter... how do scientists know that say strong or weak interaction don't actually have a huge effect over greater distances (how would you measure that??) and might actually be what's pushing the galaxies apart rather than dark matter? could be an inverse effect...

    sorry if it's all a little crazy or inaccurate in places...
  2. jcsd
  3. Sep 27, 2015 #2


    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Homework Helper
    Gold Member

    Here's result from Google --- https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q="em+radiation" --- work your way through a half dozen or dozen articles --- then try rephrasing one or two questions at a time.
  4. Sep 27, 2015 #3


    User Avatar
    2017 Award

    Staff: Mentor

    Depends on the way you count. The electromagnetic interaction and weak interaction can be combined to the electroweak interaction.
    The Higgs mechanism can be seen as part of the electroweak interaction or as some separate interaction.
    No, not at all.
    There are stable particles.
    That doesn't make sense.
    Something like planets would not exist if they would have an effect over large distances (where large means larger than the size of an atom).
    Dark matter is not pushing galaxies apart. Dark matter is attractive and keeps galaxies together. Dark energy is pushing galaxies apart from other galaxies.

    I agree with Bystander: start reading about those topics before you make up wild speculations and questions that are based on too many misconceptions for a proper answer.
  5. Sep 27, 2015 #4
    OK, thanks, I'll try and get back to you, I really need to either do some reading or talk to an experienced physicist in real life... would prefer the latter but may not be possible for a while.
Share this great discussion with others via Reddit, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook