Hi all, This question has been intriguing me for a long time and now that I discovered this forum I thought it is a good place to ask. Take a typical CPU. To operate it draws energy from the power supply, does some computation and emits heat. Since state of energy can only be transformed and not created or lost, are the "interesting computational results" somewhere in this equation or does emitted heat equate to input energy and calculations are just an useful side effect? I am not a physicist, but If they are a side effect that would really be interesting to think about. Would it imply all the answers are already present in the original data, and we need to spend energy just to shuffle it around in order to get our answer. Wouldn't it also imply that every computation can be optimised so much that it is not needed at all? (spend zero energy to get the answer) On the other hand, if computation result is not just a side effect but needs to be in the energy transfer equation, what is the relation between computed results and energy invested? How it is measured and expressed?