- #1

DarthPickley

- 17

- 1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_sines

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/LawofSines.html

The Law of Sines states that, for a triangle ABC with angles A, B, C, and side lengths a = BC, b = AC, & c = AB, which is in:

__The Euclidean Plane:__

a/Sin(A) = b/Sin(B) = c/Sin(C)

__The Sphere:__

Sin(a)/Sin(A) = Sin(b)/Sin(B) = Sin(c)/Sin(C)

__The Hyperbolic Plane:__

Sinh(a)/Sin(A) = Sinh(b)/Sin(B) = Sinh(c)/Sin(C)

I also know that for Euclidean geometry, a/Sin(A) is the radius of the circumscribed circle.

Here is a proof for Euclidean geometry:

Given Triangle ABC:

Construct the altitude from C. Let h be the length of this altitude (the height, where AB is the base)

By a definition of Sine, Sin(A) = h/b and similarly, Sin(B) = h/a.

h = b*Sin(A) and h = a*Sin(B)

b*Sin(A) = h = a*Sin(B) ==> a*Sin(B) = b*Sin(A)

a/Sin(A) = b/Sin(B)

since A and B can be chosen to be any two vertices of the same triangle, it is also true that a/Sin(A) = c/Sin(C) = b/Sin(B) : which is that which was to be demonstrated.

Construct the altitude from C. Let h be the length of this altitude (the height, where AB is the base)

By a definition of Sine, Sin(A) = h/b and similarly, Sin(B) = h/a.

h = b*Sin(A) and h = a*Sin(B)

b*Sin(A) = h = a*Sin(B) ==> a*Sin(B) = b*Sin(A)

a/Sin(A) = b/Sin(B)

since A and B can be chosen to be any two vertices of the same triangle, it is also true that a/Sin(A) = c/Sin(C) = b/Sin(B) : which is that which was to be demonstrated.

Now, I have been able to prove the Spherical law of cosines using the Sphere and some basic Linear Algebra like dot product = cosine of angle. I don't really understand the hyperbolic plane well, but the formula is similar for hyperbolic law of cosines.

I have been less successful proving the Spherical law of sines, not to mention Hyperbolic law of sines.

This is what I am asking for help with. It may require some stuff with vectors I don't understand right now, but if someone can explain it in a way that makes more sense.

Is there a way to say the theorems I used for the Euclidean proof that is for the other geometries? Of course, you can derive from the law of sines itself that if C is a right angle, then Sin(A) = Sinh(a)/Sinh(c). This is sufficient to prove the entire Law of Sines. But is there a way to prove these Right-Triangle Trigonometric Definitions for Sine / Sinh for Spherical and Hyperbolic Geometry? Is this easier or simpler than the whole thing?

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SphericalTrigonometry.html

(this is another link)