# Position of speaker in front of tube to produce stationary wave

• songoku
In summary, the speaker must be placed at a certain angle, typically 45o, in order to reduce the coupling of the loudspeaker diaphragm to the wave in the tube and prevent the reflection of the exiting wave from interfering with the resonance. The exact angle is not critical, but it should be close to 45o to achieve the desired effect.

#### songoku

That is part of the article. I want to ask about step 4. I know the basic theory of how stationary wave is formed (superposition of incoming and reflected wave) and also basic concept about stationary wave in open and closed tube, something like this:

But I don't know the reason why in step 4, the speaker must be placed at angle 45o, not pointed directly into it. If I imagine it, putting the speaker directly in front of the tube will also produce reflection and possibly stationary wave.

Why should be the speaker placed at certain angle? And must it be 45o, or can it be some other angle such as 60o?

Thanks

songoku said:
Summary:: I googled a lot of thing related to experiment to produce stationary wave using speaker and open / closed pipe and I saw an article.

Why should be the speaker placed at certain angle? And must it be 45o, or can it be some other angle such as 60o?
I think it must be to reduce the 'coupling' of the loudspeaker diaphragm to the wave in the tube and so that the reflection of the exiting wave will tend to be deflected away from the tube and not back into the tube and present an 'almost closed' end to that wave, affecting the resonance. The angle won't be ever so critical.

songoku and tech99
sophiecentaur said:
I think it must be to reduce the 'coupling' of the loudspeaker diaphragm to the wave in the tube and so that the reflection of the exiting wave will tend to be deflected away from the tube and not back into the tube and present an 'almost closed' end to that wave, affecting the resonance. The angle won't be ever so critical.
Thank you very much sophiecentaur

## What is a stationary wave?

A stationary wave is a type of wave that appears to be standing still, even though it is made up of two waves traveling in opposite directions.

## How does the position of the speaker affect the production of a stationary wave?

The position of the speaker is crucial in producing a stationary wave. The speaker needs to be placed at a specific distance from the tube in order to create a standing wave pattern.

## What happens when the speaker is placed at the wrong position?

If the speaker is placed at the wrong position, the waves produced will not cancel each other out and a stationary wave will not be formed. This can result in a distorted or irregular pattern.

## Is the position of the speaker the only factor that affects the production of a stationary wave?

No, the frequency and amplitude of the waves also play a role in creating a stationary wave. The frequency needs to be adjusted so that the wavelengths of the two waves match up and create a standing wave pattern.

## Can a stationary wave be produced with any type of wave?

Yes, a stationary wave can be produced with any type of wave as long as the conditions are met. This includes having a fixed boundary, such as a tube, and the waves having the same frequency and amplitude.