I am using the book Electronic Communication Systems by Wayne Tomasi: I had a problem with a certain part of the book: The book gives the formula for the minimum nyquist bandwidth as: " The minimum theoretical bandwidth necessary to propagate a signal is called the minimum Nyquist bandwidth or sometimes the minimum nyquist frequency. Thus, fb=2B, where fb is the bit rate in bps and B is the ideal nyquist bandwidth." Then it says that: "Using multilevel signaling, the nyquist formultion for channel capacity is fb=2Blog2M. This equation can be rearranged to solve for the minimum bandwidth necessary to pass M-ary digitally modulated carriers. B=fb/log2M" ??? What happened to the number 2 in 2Blog2M?? I thought it was just a typo but then it used this equation for the next discussions. Please reply, thanks in advance!!!