I am using the book Electronic Communication Systems by Wayne Tomasi:(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

I had a problem with a certain part of the book:

The book gives the formula for the minimum nyquist bandwidth as:

" The minimum theoretical bandwidth necessary to propagate a signal is called the minimum Nyquist bandwidth or sometimes the minimum nyquist frequency. Thus, fb=2B, where fb is the bit rate in bps and B is the ideal nyquist bandwidth."

Then it says that:

"Using multilevel signaling, the nyquist formultion for channel capacity is fb=2Blog_{2}M. This equation can be rearranged to solve for the minimum bandwidth necessary to pass M-ary digitally modulated carriers. B=fb/log_{2}M" ???

What happened to the number 2 in 2Blog_{2}M?? I thought it was just a typo but then it used this equation for the next discussions.

Please reply, thanks in advance!!!

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# Problem with Minimum Nyquist bandwidth formula and m-ary encoding

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