I have been trying so hard to get some answers to a few questions I have in regard to this paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1404.1207 I think those questions can best be summarized this way: 1) A metastable false vacuum is a field and fields are just the changing value of a parameter in spacetime.The field and the fluctuations are the same thing. The fluctuations are described by field equations. The field is the changing values of those parameters throughout space and time. Those values fluctuate, and these are the quantum fluctuations, which are in turn the field. They're all one and the same thing. The fluctuations don't occur IN the field, they ARE the field. All activity in those fields is nothing more nor less than the changing values of parameters. 2) Absent space, there is no vacuum. 2.1) Absent space, there is no metastable false vacuum 3)The above mentioned paper claims that space and time are created by quantum fluctuations of the metastable false vacuum. This is all I've been able to gather on the matter from someone who is educated on this subject. But my main point of confusion is how can the quantum fluctuations of the metastable false vacuum create space and time if a vacuum can not exist if there is no space. The only answers I have been able to think of are: 1)A metastable false vacuum is something drastically different than a quantum vacuum; as such it does not require space to exist. 2)When the paper says these fluctuations create space and time; that is just word play. They get a "kind" of space from another kind of space. Similar to when physicists say "the Universe came from nothing" they in fact mean something.