# Vacuum Transitions and Lorentz Symmetry Breaking

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• Suekdccia
In summary, there are several models where Lorentz invariance is violated, and it is possible that one of these models would describe a vacuum in which bumblebee models (like those cited in the article [2], like Holger Nielsen's model) would be valid.
Suekdccia
TL;DR Summary
Vacuum Transitions and Lorentz Symmetry Breaking
There are several "bumblebee" models [1], [2] where Lorentz invariance is violated usually resulting from a local vector or tensor field acquiring a nonzero vacuum expectation value

We do not know whether we are in the true vacuum state or in a "false"/metastable vacuum state that could decay. Even if we were in a true vacuum state, there could be (theoretically speaking) highly energetic events in the universe that would "inject" energy to the vacuum, changing its ground state into an excited/unstable/false vacuum state (this was confirmed by Gian Francesco Giudice, a particle physicist from CERN working in vacuum decay models, who told me this was possible in an email). Then this "new" metastable vacuum could decay into a lower vacuum state or even return to the initial true vacuum state. But then, even if we found that the Standard Model was complete (or that at least it was in a true vacuum state), would these vacuum phase transitions (from the true vacuum into a false one and then decaying) change the particle physics we know (changing the fundamental forces, fields and particles or even replacing them with totally different ones)?

And if that would be possible, then, since physics could change depending on the energy and the characteristics of the vacuum, could one of these vacuum phase transitions result in a specific configuration of particles, forces, fields, symmetries and groups that would be compatible with a vacuum from a Lorentz-symmetry violating theory that are cited in [2] (e.g Holger Nielsen's random dynamics: so in that vacuum one would find no fundamental symmetries in the smallest scales, as Nielsen proposes)?

[1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bumblebee_models
[2]: http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0035-001X2010000600006

First you need to observe this Lorentz symmetry breaking in an experiment.
How do those theorists propose to observe this symmetry breaking?

physika
Could there be an infinite number of false vacuums and no true vacuum?

Just an idea.

MathematicalPhysicist said:
Just an idea.
Is it even an idea?

What does it mean? How would you test such a thing - even in principle?

Vanadium 50 said:
Is it even an idea?

What does it mean? How would you test such a thing - even in principle?
Is string theory testable?

Actually, yes. String theory says the universe is supersymmetric. Thus far, it appears not to be supported by data.

Now, let me contradict myself. "String theory" is not a physical theory, but a mathematical toolkit used to construct physical theories. These theories can be supported or not, nut the toolkit is as valid as its mathematics.

Vanadium 50 said:
Actually, yes. String theory says the universe is supersymmetric. Thus far, it appears not to be supported by data.

Now, let me contradict myself. "String theory" is not a physical theory, but a mathematical toolkit used to construct physical theories. These theories can be supported or not, nut the toolkit is as valid as its mathematics.
As far as I know, not all string theories are supersymmetric.

MathematicalPhysicist said:
Could there be an infinite number of false vacuums and no true vacuum?

Just an idea.
So if there were infinitely many false vacua, we would find in at least one of these vacua, a vacuum described by bumblebee models (like those cited in the article [2], like Holger Nielsen's model)?

Suekdccia said:
So if there were infinitely many false vacua, we would find in at least one of these vacua, a vacuum described by bumblebee models (like those cited in the article [2], like Holger Nielsen's model)?
I don't know, I haven't read his paper. And I am not so sure I have the right knowledge to understand it right now.

## 1. What is a vacuum transition?

A vacuum transition is a phenomenon that occurs in quantum field theory where the vacuum state of a system changes due to a change in the parameters of the theory. This can result in a change in the properties of particles and their interactions.

## 2. How does Lorentz symmetry breaking affect vacuum transitions?

Lorentz symmetry breaking is the violation of the principle of relativity, which states that the laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion. This can affect vacuum transitions by changing the properties of particles and their interactions, leading to a different vacuum state.

## 3. What is the significance of vacuum transitions and Lorentz symmetry breaking in particle physics?

Vacuum transitions and Lorentz symmetry breaking are important concepts in particle physics as they can provide insight into the fundamental nature of particles and their interactions. They also play a crucial role in understanding the behavior of particles at high energies and in the early universe.

## 4. How do scientists study vacuum transitions and Lorentz symmetry breaking?

Scientists study vacuum transitions and Lorentz symmetry breaking through experiments at particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider. They also use theoretical models and mathematical calculations to predict and understand the behavior of particles in these scenarios.

## 5. Can vacuum transitions and Lorentz symmetry breaking be observed in everyday life?

No, vacuum transitions and Lorentz symmetry breaking are only observed in extreme conditions, such as high energies or in the early universe. These phenomena cannot be observed in everyday life due to the limitations of our technology and the energy scales involved.

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