The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 goes to

DevilsAvocado
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Main Question or Discussion Point

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 goes to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andre_Geim" [Broken]!

geim.jpg
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The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 was awarded jointly to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene".

Congrats!!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene" [Broken]

Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. It can be visualized as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms and their bonds. The name comes from graphite + -ene; graphite itself consists of many graphene sheets stacked together.

The carbon-carbon bond length in graphene is about 0.142 nm. Graphene is the basic structural element of some carbon allotropes including graphite, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can also be considered as an infinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons called graphenes. The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene".

340px-Graphen.jpg
[PLAIN]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Real_graphene.jpg/340px-Real_graphene.jpg[/QUOTE] [Broken]


Graphene is a new (2004) cool and very useful material. It’s 200 times stronger than steel, and translucent, and the electron speed is 100 times faster than Silicon, and 30 times Gallium arsenide. Adding a tiny amount of Graphene to Polymer makes it heat-resistant and another mix makes it stiff.

In one to two years we will see Graphene in a lot of consumer products and electronics as touchscreens, etc.

The cool thing is that you can make Graphene very easy yourself! Take a pencil a draw on a piece of paper. Put a piece of adhesive tape on the masterpiece, and lift up. Now you have Graphene! (Sounds like a joke, but it’s true. :smile:)

Andre Geim is a very bright and also "humorous" scientist and he shared the 2000 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ig_Nobel_Prize" [Broken] the frog.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=<object width="480" height="385">
<param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/A1vyB-O5i6E&fs=1&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0&amp;color1=0xe1600f&amp;color2=0xfebd01"></param> [Broken]
<param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param>
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</object>

:biggrin:
 
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Answers and Replies

DevilsAvocado
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751
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More info:

Here are some of the papers.
http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0410550" [Broken]
K.S. Novoselov, A.K. Geim, S.V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S.V. Dubonos, I.V. Grigorieva, A.A. Firsov
(Submitted on 21 Oct 2004)
Journal reference: Science, Vol 306, 666 (2004)


http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0410631" [Broken]
K.S. Novoselov, A.K. Geim, S.V. Morozov, S.V. Dubonos, Y. Zhang, D. Jiang
(Submitted on 25 Oct 2004)
Journal reference: see cond-mat/0505319 and PRB 72, 201401 (2005)


The announcement of the physics prize in Swedish/English, talking about massless Dirac electrons and quantum Hall effect, etc.
2dif2hj.jpg

Website translated into English


http://svtplay.se/v/2178059/nobel_2010/tillkannagivelsen_av_fysikpriset" [Broken]​


Another exciting application, for those interested in EPR-Bell, is maybe this?
http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.0217" [Broken]
Authors: M. Kindermann
(Submitted on 1 Jul 2008 (v1), last revised 3 Jul 2008 (this version, v2))
Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 79, 115444 (2009).

Abstract: We propose a way of producing and detecting pseudospin entanglement between electrons and holes in graphene. Electron-hole pairs are produced by a fluctuating potential and their entanglement is demonstrated by a current correlation measurement. The chirality of electrons in graphene facilitates a well-controlled Bell test with (pseudo-)spin projection angles defined in real space.
 
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atyy
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Well done Scotch tape! Looks like Berry (and Aharonov) are next in line!
 
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From Nobelprize.org – The Offical Web Site for the Nobel Prize:

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 was awarded jointly to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2010/#
Also, Nature, a peer reviewed journal, on October 5, 2010 has on the front page - New Nobel laureates Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov wrote about graphene in Nature Materials in 2007.http://www.nature.com/

Progress Article abstract:
Nature Materials 6, 183 - 191 (2007)
doi:10.1038/nmat1849
The rise of graphene
A. K. Geim1 & K. S. Novoselov1

Abstract
Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.

1. Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Correspondence to: A. K. Geim1 e-mail: geim@man.ac.uk
Correspondence to: K. S. Novoselov1 e-mail: kostya@graphene.org
http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v6/n3/abs/nmat1849.html
and

Nature Physics 5, 862 - 863 (2009)
doi:10.1038/nphys1471
Subject Categories: Electronics, photonics and device physics | Condensed-matter physics

Graphene: Cracking bilayers
Kostya S. Novoselov1
1.Kostya S. Novoselov is in the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.
e-mail: kostya@manchester.ac.uk

Abstract
The observation of Hall quantization and complete lifting of the degeneracy in bilayer graphene at magnetic fields an order of magnitude lower than previously reported has important implications for an understanding of the role of many-body interactions in the exotic behaviour of bi- and monolayer graphene.

Ever since isolated graphene was reported for the first time1 it has continued to impress, and new reasons to be excited about this first two-dimensional atomic crystal appear on a monthly basis. However, for many researchers it is graphene's unusual electronic properties that generate the greatest excitement.
http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v5/n12/full/nphys1471.html
 
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DevilsAvocado
Gold Member
751
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Thanks ViewsofMars! Here are some direct links to PDF:s on their site:

Condensed Matter Physics Group
http://www.graphene.org


  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/17%20Sci.%20Am.%20298,%2090-97%20(2008).pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/28%20Physics%20Today%2060%2035%2041%20AUG%202007.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/PhysicsWorld_2009.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/33%20%20Nature%20%20Materials%206%20183%20191%202007.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/1%20science%20review%202009.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/7%20Rev%20Mod%20Phys%2081%20109%20162%202009.pdf" [Broken]

Edit: Don’t miss the http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/publications/index.html#graphene" [Broken] link... reading until Christmas... :smile:

Naturephys_2010.GIF
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2,193
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This is very interesting. I look forward to viewing all the links here.
 
DevilsAvocado
Gold Member
751
90
236
5
Damnit I thought I'd get it this year
 
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Thanks ViewsofMars! Here are some direct links to PDF:s on their site:

Condensed Matter Physics Group
http://www.graphene.org


  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/17%20Sci.%20Am.%20298,%2090-97%20(2008).pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/28%20Physics%20Today%2060%2035%2041%20AUG%202007.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/PhysicsWorld_2009.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/33%20%20Nature%20%20Materials%206%20183%20191%202007.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/1%20science%20review%202009.pdf" [Broken]

  • http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/research/graphene/7%20Rev%20Mod%20Phys%2081%20109%20162%202009.pdf" [Broken]

Edit: Don’t miss the http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/publications/index.html#graphene" [Broken] link... reading until Christmas... :smile:

Naturephys_2010.GIF
Naturemat_2007Review.gif
Naturephys_2006_Klein.gif
small_2010.gif
Naturephot_2008.gif
MaterialsToday_2006.jpg
Thank you, DevilsAvocado. I've been reading them since early this morn. :wink: Awesome stuff! Ah yes, the School of Physics and Astronomy at The University of Manchester! (1) My oh my, they sure have an incrediable group of scientists.

University of Manchester scientists win the Nobel Prize for Physics05 Oct 2010

Two scientists who discovered graphene at The University of Manchester have today been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Professor Andre Geim and Professor Konstantin Novoselov have been awarded the highest accolade in the scientific world for their pioneering work with the world’s thinnest material.

Graphene was discovered at the University in 2004. It has rapidly become one of the hottest topics in materials science and solid-state physics.

Professor Novoselov, 36, known as Kostya, first worked with Professor Geim, 51, as a PhD-student in the Netherlands. He subsequently followed Geim to the United Kingdom. Both of them originally studied and began their careers as physicists in Russia.

The award of the Nobel Prize means there are currently four Nobel Laureates at The University of Manchester.

Professor Geim said: “This is a fantastic honour. People have been talking about graphene as a possible prize winner for a number of years so for the community in graphene research it hardly comes as a surprise.

“However I personally did not expect to get this prize. I slept soundly last night because I never expected to win it.

“Having won the Nobel Prize, some people sit back and stop doing anything, whereas others work so hard that they go mad in a few years. But I will be going into the office as usual and continuing to work hard and paddle through life as usual.

“I have lots of research papers to work on at the moment which all need writing up so I will be carrying on as normal.

“I have a fantastic working relationship with Kostya. We worked together in Holland and then I managed to bring him to England with me.

“Very often I fall out with people who don’t work hard but I have never fallen out with those who work as hard as Kostya.”

Professor Konstantin Novoselov said: “I was really shocked when I heard the news and my first thought was to go to the lab and tell the team.

“I didn’t know until this morning when I had a call from Stockholm.

“We have had a fantastic seven years working together on this new material graphene.

“The University is well suited to this style of research- we have excellent facilities.

“It’s great to be a young academic at The University of Manchester and I’m grateful to everyone who has collaborated with us.”

Graphene was discovered in 2004 and is a two-dimensional layer of carbon atoms that resembles chicken wire. Since then it has rapidly become one of the hottest topics in materials science and solid-state physics.

Since its discovery, Professor Geim and Dr Novoselov have published numerous research papers in prestigious journals such as Science and Nature, which have demonstrated the exquisite new physics for the material and its potential in novel applications such as ultrafast transistors just one atom thick – making it a potential successor to silicon – and sensors that can detect just a single molecule of a toxic gas.

A team of materials scientists and physicists from Manchester recently reported that graphene has the potential to replace carbon fibres in high performance materials that are used to build aircraft.

University of Manchester President and Vice-Chancellor Nancy Rothwell said: “This is fantastic news. We are delighted that Andre and Konstantin’s work on graphene has been recognised at the very highest level by the 2010 Nobel Prize Committee.

“This is a wonderful example of a fundamental discovery based on scientific curiosity with major practical, social and economic benefits for society.”

Vice-President and Dean of Engineering and Physical Sciences Professor Colin Bailey added: “This is a truly tremendous achievement, and is a testimony to the quality of research that is being carried out in Physics and more broadly across the University”.
http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/news/display/?id=6192
Cherrio,

Mars

p.s. I think PhysicsForums has done a superb job of reporting the news! Better than Scientific American!:wink:


1. http://www.physics.manchester.ac.uk/
 
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From The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council:

Nobel Prize winner ‘will bring significant benefits to UK economy’
05/10/2010 Press release: EPSRC researcher Professor Andre Geim and fellow Russian born scientist Konstantin Novoselov share this year’s Nobel Prize for Physics for their "groundbreaking" work on a material with amazing properties.

EPSRC researcher Professor Andre Geim and fellow Russian born scientist Konstantin Novoselov share this year’s Nobel Prize for Physics for their "groundbreaking" work on a material with amazing properties.

The Nobel Committee said that the physicists, based at the University of Manchester, have shown that an extremely thin form of carbon just one atom thick had exceptional properties originating in the world of quantum physics.[:biggrin:]

Geim and Novoselov discovered ‘graphene' a tiny sheet of material that is super-strong, highly conductive and practically transparent. The unique properties of the material mean it could have a vast array of practical applications including the development of super-computers capable of probing the greatest theory ever devised.

Professor Geim was awarded an EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) grant of more £5 million in October 2009 to lead a team to investigate the potential of the material.

Professor David Delpy, Chief Executive, EPSRC, said:

“This work represents an enormously important scientific development. An exciting new material that has a huge range of applications and will no doubt bring significant benefits to the UK economy. EPSRC has been supporting research by Professor Geim and his group for nearly 10 years and our latest grant has enabled the UK to retain the key academic and research staff behind this discovery, who might otherwise have been lost to foreign institutions.”

Facts about graphene
■Graphene is the world’s thinnest material.
■One atom thick, it’s the strongest material ever measured, incredibly stiff yet flexible, and a phenomenal conductor of heat and electricity.
■Electrons travel further in graphene than in any other material, opening up a range of potential electronic applications.
■Graphene-based integrated circuits could reduce the size and increase the sophistication of devices such as computers and mobile phones.
■Graphene-based transistors could help communications technologies exploit the terahertz part of the electromagnetic spectrum
■Other potential uses include a new generation of toxin and pollution sensors that are much more sensitive than those currently available.

About EPSRC
The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the UK’s main agency for funding research in engineering and the physical sciences. The EPSRC invests more than £850 million a year in research and postgraduate training to help the nation handle the next generation of technological change.
http://www.epsrc.ac.uk/newsevents/news/2010/Pages/nobelprizewinner.aspx [Broken]
 
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