1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I've recently been completing an assessment on Torricelli's Trumpet and was told to look into the geometry aspect. I've been following this website: http://www.palmbeachstate.edu/honors/documents/jeansergejoseph.pdf I understand all the steps but am not privvy to how they went from Ru*Rv=-f(u)cos(v)+f(u)sin(v)+f(u)f'(u) to ||Ru*Rv||=√(f}^2+(ff')^2) I understand that they taken the inner product space (or at least that is what I believe it is) but I don't know how they managed to manipulate that equation to the inner product space? These are seen at the bottom of page 12 and the beginning of page 13 for the website. If someone could explain further what happened I would be very greatful.