What Is the Correct Formula for Calculating Power in Rotational Motion?

In summary, the power is not constant and is given by: Power = T x ω where ω is the final angular velocity.
  • #1
RoboNerd
410
11

Homework Statement


An object of moment of inertia I is initially at rest. a net torque T accelerates the object to angular velocity omega in time t.

The power with which the object is accelerated is?

The right answer apparently is [ I * omega^2 ] / [2 * t].

Could anyone please explain why this approach is right?

Here's what I did:

Homework Equations


torque = I * angular acceleration
power = torque * omega

The Attempt at a Solution


power = torque * omega = I * angular acceleration * omega = I * (final omega/delta t) * final omega [I was finding the maximum power here]

However, the solutions have everything I got, with an additional 2 in the denominator.
Is the 2 supposed to be used for calculating the average omega in the rotational motion?

If so, the problem just says "the power," not "average power," so is it OK to make such an assumption?

Thanks in advance!
 
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  • #2
RoboNerd said:
power = torque * omega

Check that.
 
  • #3
I meant angular accceleration instead of omega. My bad. typo
 
  • #4
I accounted for the angular acceleration in my work, though.
 
  • #5
Try again :-)
 
  • #6
Sorry we cross posted...

Power = Torque * angular velocity
 
  • #7
Ohh OK. that is exactly what I meant.
 
  • #8
Oops looks like I miss read your OP. I see omega _is_ the angular velocity.
 
  • #9
OK, so is the reason why they have a 2 in the denominator for the accepted answer the fact that they are accounting for average omega?
 
  • #10
The equation for the KE in a moving object is 0.5mV2.. What's the same for a flywheel ?
 
  • #11
CWatters said:
The equation for the KE in a moving object is 0.5mV2.. What's the same for a flywheel ?

I do not believe they are asking for kinetic energy of rotation in this problem.
 
  • #12
Not explicitly but remember

Power = energy/time

(or rather the change in energy/change in time)
 
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  • #13
well I could have done that approach. The question is not what approach I could have done, but rather, if they were doing for average power.

OK, going your way I would have (0.5) * I * omega^2 /2, which is the "right" answer.
 
  • #15
I did not mean "average power", I was talking about taking the average omega with it being = (wi + wf)/2 with the expression turning into wf/2 because wi is equal to zero.
 
  • #16
I can see where you are coming from but I get there a slightly different way...

The work done by Torque T is given by
Work = Tθ
where θ = Angular Displacement

Now
T = Iα
where
I = Moment of inertia
α = angular acceleration

so
Work = Tθ = Iαθ

α = ω/t
and
θ = ωt/2

so the work done is

Work = I * ω/t * ωt/2 = 0.5Iω2

and the power is that divided by time..

Power = 0.5Iω2/t
 
  • #17
RoboNerd said:

Homework Statement


An object of moment of inertia I is initially at rest. a net torque T accelerates the object to angular velocity omega in time t.

The power with which the object is accelerated is?

The right answer apparently is [ I * omega^2 ] / [2 * t].

Could anyone please explain why this approach is right?

Here's what I did:

Homework Equations


torque = I * angular acceleration
power = torque * omega

The Attempt at a Solution


power = torque * omega = I * angular acceleration * omega = I * (final omega/delta t) * final omega [I was finding the maximum power here]

However, the solutions have everything I got, with an additional 2 in the denominator.
Is the 2 supposed to be used for calculating the average omega in the rotational motion?

If so, the problem just says "the power," not "average power," so is it OK to make such an assumption?

Thanks in advance!
 
  • #18
your first post is absolutely correct.
Power = T x ω
The object accelerates from zero up to ω and therefore the power increase from zero up to Tω after t seconds
If the quoted answer is 0.5Tω then this is the average power supplied during the acceleration.
 
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  • #19
OK, thanks so much for the input!
 
  • #20
CWatters said:
No the power is constant so the 0.5 doesn't come from calculating the "average power".

If you want to know where the 0.5 comes from see threads like this one...

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/how-is-the-formula-kinetic-energy-1-2mv-2-derived.124750/

That's all about the linear KE but it's essentially the same for rotational KE.
The power is not constant !
It increases from zero to a max of Tω where ω is the final angular velocity
This is how the value of 0.5Tω comes about for the average power (assuming uniform accelerarion)
Mistakes like this cause great confusion !
 
  • #21
Gosh I'm sorry. I really messed up there!
 

Related to What Is the Correct Formula for Calculating Power in Rotational Motion?

1. What is rotational motion?

Rotational motion is the movement of an object around an axis or center point. This type of motion is typically circular or elliptical in nature and involves the object rotating or spinning about its axis.

2. What is the difference between rotational motion and linear motion?

The main difference between rotational motion and linear motion is the type of movement. Linear motion involves an object moving in a straight line, while rotational motion involves an object moving in a circular or curved path around an axis.

3. How is rotational motion calculated?

The rotational motion of an object can be calculated using the formula ω = Δθ / Δt, where ω represents the angular velocity, Δθ is the change in angle, and Δt is the change in time. This formula is used to measure the speed of rotation of an object.

4. What are some real-world applications of rotational motion?

Rotational motion has many practical applications in our daily lives. Some examples include the rotation of wheels on a car, the rotation of a propeller on a plane, the spinning of a top, and the rotation of planets around the sun. It is also used in machines such as turbines, motors, and engines.

5. How does rotational motion affect the stability of an object?

Rotational motion can affect the stability of an object in several ways. A rotating object has a tendency to maintain its axis of rotation, making it more stable. However, if the object is rotating too quickly, it can become unstable and tip over. Additionally, the distribution of mass in an object can also affect its stability when rotating.

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