# Zeeman effect: Experimental Setup and Explanation

• Kartoshka123
In summary: So, to summarize, one needs a magnetic field of 1 Tesla in order to observe the Zeeman effect. A solenoid can be made to achieve this, using a flux density of 1 Tesla.
Kartoshka123
Homework Statement
Hello, I have to explain using numbers the Zeeman effect for hydrogen and the setup needed. I have done some research and if I'm not wrong, then a magnetic field of 1 Tesla is needed. I have no idea how to achieve that using commercially available products and how to even begin to explain it.
Relevant Equations
Could someone please explain the effect using simple concepts (as I have only started year 12) and explain anything complicated. I am unable to find a good theoretical explanation of why it works.
Homework Statement: Hello, I have to explain using numbers the Zeeman effect for hydrogen and the setup needed. I have done some research and if I'm not wrong, then a magnetic field of 1 Tesla is needed. I have no idea how to achieve that using commercially available products and how to even begin to explain it.
Homework Equations: Could someone please explain the effect using simple concepts (as I have only started year 12) and explain anything complicated. I am unable to find a good theoretical explanation of why it works.

I have found that it is best to make your own electromagnet, a solenoid. Everywhere I read that to make it you need to have a flux density of 1 Telsa and for that, there would need to be an iron core in the middle of my solenoid. I understand that it is a way to achieve the needed flux density (to put the iron core in the middle), but if I understand correctly the sample of hydrogen would need to be inside the solenoid where there is the strongest field. Please help me understand this correctly.

You can get commercially available permanent magnets, made mostly of iron, but most likely the pole pieces are some kind of magnet other than iron that have magnetic field strength of something in the neighborhood of one Tesla in the gap between the poles. Let me see if I can find you a "link". http://info.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Workshop/advice/coils/gap/index.html The best "link" I could find is the design for an electromagnet. In the gap between the poles you can put hydrogen discharge tube=basically the same type of lamp mechanism that powers a mercury-xenon based fluorescent lamp. ## \\ ## With the magnet turned on, you will observe splittings of the spectral lines of a spectrometer=2 or more closely spaced lines where there previously was just a single line, due to the Zeeman effect. ## \\ ## And for theoretical explanation, the various atomic states (the electronic states) undergo slight energy shifts given by ## \Delta E=-\vec{\mu} \cdot \vec{B} ##, where ## \vec{ \mu} ## can point either along ## \vec{B} ## or opposite ## \vec{B} ##, giving two slightly different energy levels for the same ## n ## and ## l ##, where there is only one energy level when ## \vec{B} =0 ##. The amplitude of ## \vec{\mu} ## for the electrons of hydrogen is in the neighborhood of the Bohr magneton ## \mu_B=9.27\, E-24 ## joules/Tesla. The other relevant energies here can be found by reading about the Bohr atom, where ## E=-\frac{R}{n^2} ## where ## R ## is the Rydberg constant. The spectral lines you will observe are caused by transitions from one integer ## n ## to another. In this case, I believe the four main visible lines result from transitions from ## n=6, 5, 4, ## and ## 3 ## to ## n=2 ##. These are the well-known lines of the Balmer series. You can observe splittings of these lines due to the Zeeman effect.

Last edited:

## 1. What is the Zeeman effect?

The Zeeman effect is the splitting of atomic energy levels in the presence of a magnetic field. It was first observed in 1896 by Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman.

## 2. How is the Zeeman effect experimentally set up?

The Zeeman effect can be observed by shining light on a sample of atoms in a strong magnetic field. The light source can be a lamp or laser, and the magnetic field is typically created using an electromagnet or permanent magnet.

## 3. How does the Zeeman effect work?

The Zeeman effect is caused by the interaction between the magnetic field and the electrons in the atoms. The electrons have a magnetic moment, and when placed in a magnetic field, they experience a force that causes their energy levels to split.

## 4. What is the difference between the normal Zeeman effect and the anomalous Zeeman effect?

The normal Zeeman effect occurs when the magnetic field is weak and the energy levels split into three components. The anomalous Zeeman effect occurs when the magnetic field is strong and the energy levels split into more than three components.

## 5. What are the applications of the Zeeman effect?

The Zeeman effect is used in spectroscopy to study the energy levels of atoms. It also has applications in magnetic field measurements and in understanding the behavior of stars and other celestial bodies.

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