What is 2nd law: Definition and 298 Discussions

The 2nd Law is the sixth studio album by English rock band Muse. It was released on 1 October 2012 in the United Kingdom and elsewhere on 28 September, 2 and 3 October under Warner Bros. Records and the band's own Helium-3 imprint. The title of the album refers to the second law of thermodynamics and the album's cover art features a map of the human brain's pathways, which was taken from the Human Connectome Project. Recording of the album took place in four different studios, began in October 2011, and ended in August 2012. Mainly self-produced by the band, with the exception of the song "Follow Me", which was co-produced by English electronic music trio Nero, The 2nd Law features multiple styles of music and was influenced by acts such as Queen, David Bowie, and Skrillex.
Upon release, the album received generally favourable reviews from music critics, holding a 70/100 score on review aggregator site Metacritic, and had a very positive commercial performance. It was a top ten-charting album in 31 countries and a number one album in 13 countries. The album has been certified platinum by the BPI in the United Kingdom, the FIMI in Italy, the IFPI in Switzerland, and Music Canada in Canada. It has also been certified triple-platinum by the SNEP in France. At the 55th Annual Grammy Awards, the album was nominated for Best Rock Album and the album's second track "Madness" was nominated for Best Rock Song. The album's third track "Panic Station" was also nominated for Best Rock Song at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards the following year.
A total of five official singles were released from the album. "Survival", released on 27 June, and "Madness", released on 20 August, preceded the album's release. "Survival" was notable for being chosen as the official song for the 2012 Summer Olympics, while "Madness" was notable for its positive commercial performance, as well as for topping the Billboard Alternative Songs chart for a record 19 weeks, beating out the previous record set by "The Pretender" by Foo Fighters. Three singles were released after the release of the album: "Follow Me", released on 7 December, "Supremacy", released on 20 February 2013, and "Panic Station", released on 31 May. "Big Freeze" was also released as a radio single in France and "Animals" received a music video release, both in April 2013.

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  1. Philip Koeck

    A Dual gas (coupled) cyclic processes?

    I have a somewhat open question here and maybe the beginning of some interesting ideas. I came across this paper [unacceptable reference removed by the Mentors], which claims to give an example of a system that defies the second law. This got me thinking about where the proposed idea starts...
  2. Shovon00000

    Question about the 2nd law of thermodynamics (heat loss)

    Assume that a closed system of cylindar filled with ideal gas consists of a movable piston.We know from the 1st law dQ=dU +dW. According to the 2nd law mechanical energy can be totally converted into heat energy but heat energy cannot be converted completely into mechanical energy.The question...
  3. yinnxz

    Violation of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

    I don't understand, can you calculate efficiency only using the temperature?
  4. A

    Rocket acceleration problem: confused about Newton's 2nd Law

    TL;DR Summary: I approach a rocket acceleration problem using two approaches: F=d(m*v)/dt and F=ma. The resulting differential equations are different. What am I doing wrong? We have a ship with a mass-reaction rocket engine floating in space. The initial mass of the ship (including fuel) is...
  5. G

    B Does gravity defy the 2nd Law?

    Summary: Trying to understand the relationship between gravity, thermodynamics and entropy, thank you. Gravity can take a diffuse cloud of gas filling a given volume of space at equilibrium density and temperature, and turn it into a burning star surrounded by empty space. Does this mean that...
  6. guyvsdcsniper

    I Relating Entropy and the 2nd law

    So I am midway through my Thermodynamics course in college and still feel a bit unsure about the 2nd law and entropy. I've learned that the 2nd law was states 3 different ways, and by contrapositive proofs we can determine they are all equivalent. What we end up getting for the 2nd law is...
  7. D

    B Infrared Detectors & The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

    This started as an astrophotography question and morphed into a thermodynamics question & it was suggested to start a new thread in Thermodynamics. Essentially the question is how do I reconcile the behavior of particular infrared photodetectors with the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics? For example...
  8. D

    B HFC-134a Refrigerant & 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

    I am trying to reconcile HFC-134a refrigerant with the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. I shouldn't be able to extract useful work from a single temperature reservoir. Suppose I use a refrigeration / heat pump cycle with HFC-134a as shown below. -Compressor adds 29 kJ/kg increasing refrigerant...
  9. questionmonkey123

    Constant pressure process (piston) on gas violates Newtons 2nd law?

    I often see this set up in thermodynamic problems and need clarification on how Newton's Laws are involved for the piston: Gas inside a piston cylinder (1) is heated expanding the gas and raising the piston (initially at rest) to a height (2) in a constant pressure quasi-equilibrium process...
  10. MichPod

    I 1st law of Newton as a special case of the 2nd law (historical aspect)

    I am speaking here not of the modern definitions (like a 1st Newton law as a definition of an inertial reference frame), but rather on the way the 1st law was formulated in the time of Newton. That is, it's obvious that the 1st Newton law in its original formulation is a corollary of the 2nd...
  11. Ebi Rogha

    B Is time a consequence of 2nd law of thermodynamics?

    I have heard from a knowledgeable physics proffessor, time exists independently and it is not a consequence of arrow of time. Could some body explain this?
  12. Pipsqueakalchemist

    Engineering Solving Moment Equations with Newton's 2nd Law: Help Needed!

    So I set up 3 equation for this problem. 1st was the moment equation about point G, 2nd and 3rd were from applying Newton's 2nd law to each of the blocks. I thought once I set those equations up I could solve for alpha (angular acceleration) and then find acceleration of each block but when i...
  13. V

    Understanding Newton's 2nd Law

    F=ma To check if this law works, we measure the left hand side and the right hand side and if they are equal then the law is working. To measure acceleration, we rapidly measure three positional measurements. Without appealing to the notion of the pull of gravity on an object, we measure the...
  14. G

    Is there a clever name for Newton's 2nd Law?

    Summary:: We all know of the "law of inertia" nickname for Newton's 1st law, but is there a clever name for the 2nd as well? What about the 3rd? This may be the most inane question ever asked here, but I've spent some time searching and cannot find an answer. So many laws in physics and other...
  15. J

    Is there a conflict between CPT symmetry and the 2nd law of thermodynamics?

    Naively there is a conflict between CPT symmetry being at heart of fundamental physics models like QFT, and 2nd law of thermodynamics: saying that entropy grows toward future. Is there really a conflict here - so is physics symmetric or not? How to understand it? Personally I disagree with that...
  16. Twigg

    Kelvin-Planck 2nd Law of Thermo & a Syringe Steam Engine

    So I found this steam engine on the youtubes: Consider the system not including the candles, only including the can that makes up the boiler shell and the piston, flywheel, etc. The boiler can acts as a hot reservoir; however, the Kelvin-Planck statement of the 2nd law says you can't have an...
  17. Tony Hau

    Problems understanding the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    So my professor says that the implication of 2nd law of thermodynamics is that high quality energy will be degraded into low quality energy. By high quality energy he means something like coal or fuel. By low quality energy he means something like heat entering the cold resevoir in a heat...
  18. T

    Solving Newton's 2nd Law for Particle Falling in Medium

    Good afternoon, I have a question regarding this derivation that I'm covering in Thornton & Marion's "Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems". In it, we're covering the most basic equation of motion for a particle falling in a medium. I understand the process of starting with Newton's 2nd...
  19. ttesss

    Newton's 2nd Law: Force, Mass and Acceleration

    I´m currently studying Newtons 2nd law and I don't get how can force only depend on mass and acceleration and not on velocity.. I mean, if I punch something with my fist going at constant velocity ( acceleration=0) it stills has a force right?
  20. rakailee

    Truck with attached inclined plane and a block on the incline

    I tried solving this by assuming the acceleration of the truck and block to be the same so the block would stay on the incline. Also, I would assume truck ma = static friction, block ma = mgsintheta... then I solved for a to plug into 1st equation to get 12990 N. Is this correct? I wasn't sure...
  21. S

    Covariance of Newton's 2nd Law under Galilean boosts

    I'm reading a section in a textbook on the explanation of covariance of Newton's 2nd law under Galilean boosts. It's explained that ##\mathbf{a}=\mathbf{a'}## (where we're considering two frames ##S## and ##S'## moving inertially w.r.t. each other). Mass is assumed to not vary across the frames...
  22. R

    Movement contraptions that inspired Newton's 2nd law of motion

    Besides gravity that always works perpendicular to Earth and thus pulls apples from apple trees towards the ground, there must have been some sort of mid 17th century human made contraption, that used a constant force, produced to move objects with or without wheels, in a direction parallel to...
  23. Serbiwni

    Newton's 2nd Law: Pile of Books on a Table Being Moved

    I drew a free body diagram for the books but it's not the same one in the correction. The static force Fs between the books and the table must be opposite to the motion but the correction does not the same and puts that vector in the same direction as the motion. Here's a drawing of the...
  24. T

    Understanding Newton's 2nd Law of Motion

    Hello all I am trying to understanding Newton's 2md Law of Motion which states:- Force = Mass * Acceleration If I had a force of 10Newtons pushing an object along the ground (assume no friction) in a perfectly horizontal direction that has a Mass of 10kg then the objects acceleration would be...
  25. yecko

    Why is the change in entropy of a heat pump in one cycle equal to zero?

    as it is not ideal, total change of entropy > 0 entropy loss of hot reservoir > entropy gain of cold reservoir why would the change in entropy of the heat pump in one cycle equals to zero? thank you
  26. E

    Debate over the experimental procedure for Newton's 2nd Law

    Hi, I'm currently having an ongoing debate with some teachers regarding a practical for Newton's Second Law. The prac involves a cart attached to some weights via a string on a pulley. The protocol as it stands has students add increasing mass to the end of the string (not changing the mass of...
  27. Danielpom

    Newton's 2nd law with oscilations

    Homework Statement a car moving to the left with constent accelration. a ball is hanging from the ceiling held in 90 degrees to the ceiling until t=0, then it is realesed and start to swing. find the max angle. Homework Equations Newton's second law The Attempt at a Solution...
  28. F

    Machine in Clausius' 2nd law of thermodynamics?

    Hi all, sorry for the condensed title of my post. Any other version of the question I'm trying to ask turned out to be longer than allowed. So, my question is about the wording in some versions of Clausius' statement of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. From time to time I read something like...
  29. C

    How is the 2nd law of thermodynamics obeyed in this system?

    Imagine there is an radiation concentrator (winston cone) surrounded with extremely many layers of foil for radiation insulation, except at the smaller opening. Every part of the setup is initially in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. The amount of thermal radiation flowing through the...
  30. G

    I ##F=\dot{p}=\dot{m}v+m\dot{v}## and Galilean invariance

    Hi. In Newtonian physics, total mass is conserved, but open systems can obviously gain or lose mass, such as a rocket. But how can the term ##\dot{m}v## be Galilean invariant?
  31. Vanrichten

    How Does the Chain Rule Apply to Newton's Second Law in Calculus?

    Hello, I'm new to the language of calculus. I am learning about Newtons second law and I'm trying to understand it's forms in calculus. Excuse my notation, just trying to keep it as simple as possible. F=m * dV/dt I know V= dx/dt My textbook says you can 'apply chain rule' to obtain the...
  32. Jan Nebec

    B Understanding Resistance of Acceleration: Velocity & Force

    Hello! Why does resistance to acceleration depend on both the velocity of the object as well as the direction of the force? In circular motion, we can measure the centripetal force and centripetal acceleration, then we can calculate objects mass. Speed remains constant. But we would get the...
  33. T

    Centripetal Force Homework: Find Car Speed to Lose Contact w/ Road

    Homework Statement Find the speed at which a car of mass M will lose contact with the frictionless road Homework Equations Centripetal/Centrifugal forces (maybe?) The Attempt at a Solution I used OneNote to attempt this problem[/B]...
  34. O

    Nearly Perfect Efficiency - 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

    Recently read this article on Physorg: https://phys.org/news/2018-01-efficiency.html My questions are: 1. If "converting" information into energy requires a system (the demon I suppose) having a photodiode, processor, laser (light trap) all expending energy in order to cause the conversion...
  35. Pushoam

    Is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics a Fundamental Law or a Statistical Principle?

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I think the correct option is (a) and (d) from the book reading.About the option (c), the second law of thermodynamics tells us the direction of heat flow. I think it is a fundamental law, it could not be derived.
  36. K

    Correct statement of 2nd law of thermodynamics?

    Thermodynamics is stated in different ways. E.g. In isolated systems entropy never decreases Heat never spontaneously pass from colder to warmer body Total energy quality decreases in all processes. Energy disperses But what is it exactly? What is the correct description of the 2nd law of...
  37. P

    Using Newton's 2nd Law to find acceleration

    So this is my first time posting on here and I hope I'm doing right! 1. Homework Statement A 75-kg snowboarder has an initial velocity of 5.0 m/s at the top of a 28 ∘ incline. After sliding down the 110-mlong incline (on which the coefficient of kinetic friction is μk = 0.18), the snowboarder...
  38. J

    Experiment Investigating Newton's 2nd Law

    Homework Statement We were given two methods to look into Newton's 2nd Law and evaluate them by looking at where sources of error may have come from. They both involved accelerating a car across a table. A plastic track was used to guide the car along a straight path to make sure it went...
  39. Pushoam

    Galilean invariance: Newton's 2nd Law of motion

    Consider a frame S' moving with speed u along +ve x direction with respect to another frame S. Consider a body moving with speed v along +ve x direction with respect to frame S . Both frame are inertials. here,force acting in S frame on the body is $$ F\hat x=\frac {dp} {dt}\hat x,$$...
  40. steven george

    Confusion over 2nd law and conservation of momentum

    Hi everybody, I apologize if something like this has been asked before but I have been unable to find an answer through searching. If a weight is carefully added to a moving cart then the cart should slow down due to conservation of momentum. How is it that the cart has accelerated without a...
  41. I'm Awesome

    Understanding Newton's 2nd Law

    I have a problem which reads: A frictionless pulley with zero mass is attached to the ceiling, in a gravity field of 9.81 m/s2 . Mass M2 = 0.10 kg is observed to be accelerating downward at 1.3 m/s2 and I have a solution which tells me to solve the problem use Newton's 2nd law: m1a1 = T1 -...
  42. I

    Newton's 2nd Law Problem, Angle exerted on block by surface

    Homework Statement Problem: A 12.0-kg block is pushed to the left across a rough horizontal surface by a force that is angled 30.0◦ below the horizontal. The magnitude of the force is 75.0 N and the acceleration of the block as it is pushed is 3.20 m/s^2 . What angle does the force exerted on...
  43. D

    Solving the Car Crash Puzzle: Newtons 2nd Law

    I've been trying to study for my final and I can't seem to figure out how is this suppose to work. 1. Homework Statement A wall (m infinite, v=0) hits a car (m=2600 kg; v=142 km/h). The car becomes deformed and the crush zone (0.7 m) is compressed. Calculate the corresponding acceleration...
  44. T

    How do I state 2nd law of thermodynamics for an open system

    Ecosystems are open systems, they receive solar energy and other materials from outside the ecosystem and migration of animals is also witnessed. I read Physics uptil class XII and have done a bit of research on google books and have come across these three books: 1.Towards a Thermodynamic...
  45. P

    Why not use the product rule to expand Newton's 2nd law?

    Hi! I was reading the Wikipedia article on Newton's laws of motion. I read there that when mass is a variable function of time as well as velocity, one cannot use the product rule of derivatives to expand d/dt(mv) It said that d/dt(mv)=mdv/dt+vdm/dt is WRONG I don't know why that is wrong. The...
  46. R

    A Faxen's 2nd Law: Learn How to Calculate Viscous Torque

    Can someone show me how Faxen's 2nd law for the viscous torque on a rotating sphere comes to be? I know tau_(r phi) = -3 mu Omega sin(theta) Torque is integral of vec(r) cross vec(f) But I can't get the right answer so I am doing something very wrong Help?
  47. K

    I Non-reversibility of '2nd Law' processes

    [Moderator's note: this thread is spun off from another thread in order to separate discussion on different topics. The quote below is from the original thread and is what is being responded to by kith. Kith's original post has been edited slightly for clarity.] Here's a hint: f you drop an...
  48. S

    2nd law of thermodynamics question

    The reaction CO2 + 4 H2 <==> CH4 + 2 H2O (liq) at 25oC is downhill with a gibbs energy of -31 kcal/mol. It has a negative entropy of -98 cal/K. Thus an isolated system of the two starting gases should go to equilibrium on the basis of the Gibbs energy value, but the process would then...