What is Flat: Definition and 495 Discussions

A Flat is a Hindi thriller film, directed by Hemant Madhukar and produced by Anjum Rizvi.The film was released on 12 November 2010 under the Anjum Rizvi Film Company and Y.T Entertainment Ltd. banners.

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  1. BadgerBadger92

    B What do people mean when they say “space is flat?”

    Please excuse my ignorance I hear some people say that space is flat. What exactly do they mean by this?
  2. Q

    Freon filled balloons go flat QUICKLY! Why?

    Years ago, I filled some latex party balloons with Freon 12. I haven't repeated the experiment with the Freon 134 that is available nowadays. It was fun to throw them around because Freon is so much heavier than air--you can throw them across the room and they land on the floor and stay there...
  3. J

    B How can the Universe be flat? Ridiculous

    The earth is a sphere. I can stand anywhere on its surface and look up directly above my head at the night sky and see lots of stars many light years away. I see this view wherever I stand on the earth's surface although the stars will be different ones, depending on where I'm standing...
  4. Euge

    POTW Flat Modules and Intersection

    Let ##M## be a flat module over a commutative ring ##A##. Suppose ##X_1## and ##X_2## are submodules of an ##A##-module ##X##. Prove that ##(X_1 \cap X_2) \otimes_A M = (X_1 \otimes_A M) \cap (X_2 \otimes_A M)## as submodules of ##X\otimes_A M##.
  5. O

    Coordinate transformation into a standard flat metric

    I started by expanding ##dx## and ##dt## using chain rule: $$dt = \frac{dt}{dX}dX+\frac{dt}{dT}dT$$ $$dx = \frac{dx}{dX}dX+\frac{dx}{dT}dT$$ and then expressing ##ds^2## as such: $$ds^2 =...
  6. A

    I Distance traveled by a ball down a ramp and on a flat path

    Question: A ball is hit with a certain force and it starts with an initial velocity of V m/sec decelerating due to friction along a flat path and then up an inclined ramp coming to stop at the top of the ramp where the ramp becomes flat again (as per diagram A). The total distance traveled along...
  7. C

    I How to Land a Tree Flat in 3/4 Rotation: Solving the Equations

    Can anyone tell me how to solve this problem? I have the stem of a tree that is X feet tall. It's just a cylinder as the top and all branches have been cut off. I want to cut off the top portion such that when it falls, it will do precisely a 3/4 rotation and land perfectly flat. What fraction...
  8. K

    Current through Flat Sheet or plate

    Current flow through a wire is considered (or assumed) to be flown uniform across the cross section of the wire (or is it more near skin? or at core?). However I wonder if that's the case with a sheet or plate or circular disc. e.g. If I apply voltage at two opposite corners of the square or...
  9. H

    B Size of universe - rewinding big bang versus "flat" universe

    I understand, given dark energy, given the current expansion of the universe, given its ~13.8 billion year old age, we calculate the universe is like 93 billion light years across currently. Something like that. But I was listening to something the other day, and when they test the curvature...
  10. G

    I Difference Between Locally Flat & Locally Inertial?

    Are they equivalent to each other?Thank you.
  11. D

    Minimum Length of Cuts for Unfolding Box Into Flat Sheet?

    Hi everyone I got 36 cm as the answer for the following problem, but it's supposed to be 32cm. These are the cuts I have 4 x 5cm = 20cm 2 x 3cm = 6 cm 1 x 10cm = 10cm which adds up to 36cm. I can get 32cm with 4x3=12 2x5=10 1x10=10 But I don't think that would be the correct net. Is...
  12. Buzz Bloom

    I Question re flat infinite universe with a preferred direction

    The implication seems to be that from the beginning of the post expansion era, there was everywhere an average velocity of a large volume of matter which was (very near) zero everywhere with respect to a common fixed coordinate system (with a spacially uniform time expansion of distances)...
  13. PainterGuy

    I Why is the observed local region of space flat?

    Hi, Also, I read this article, What Do You Mean, The Universe Is Flat? (Part I), on Scientific American; URL: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/degrees-of-freedom/httpblogsscientificamericancomdegrees-of-freedom20110725what-do-you-mean-the-universe-is-flat-part-i/ I have few questions about...
  14. K

    A Can a conformal flat metric be curved?

    5/18/22 I am an MS in physics. I need to find out if the following CONFORMAL METRIC produces zero or nonzero curvature? I suspect the curvature is zero, but others have said it's probably not? MAXIMA sometimes says it is, and other times produces a Ricci scalar that looks like the FRW scalar...
  15. P

    I Exploring a Flat, Expanding Universe with GR & Newtonian Mechanics

    Global Newtonian mechanics seems to be compatible with 1) Hubble's law, and 2) the cosmological principle: take a vector space, set the velocity of a galaxy at x to be v=x, where x is the position vector. Then from any galaxy, the other galaxies seem to go away with velocity v2-v1 = x2-x1. That...
  16. Buzz Bloom

    I An idea for calculating the probability that the Universe is flat

    References (1) https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/what-is-the-probability-that-the-universe-is-absolutely-flat.971984/ (2) https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/calculating-the-probability-that-the-universe-is-finite.1011826/ Suppose the Friedmann equation is used to analyze two models. (1)...
  17. Buzz Bloom

    I A relationship between flat vs. finite and (2) Hubble constant tension

    One recent example of a thread discussing flat or not is: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/could-the-universe-be-infinite.1011228/ . I found an interesting 2021 article regarding the Hubble constant tension...
  18. S

    Flat Belt and Pullies with different Coefficients

    I would like to attached a picture here...
  19. G

    I Flat arena for quantum gravity?

    In a textbook, which is not in Englisch language unfortunately, I found a passage saying that intrinsic curvature of spacetime is just a specific definition. The alternative definition is that spacetime is flat, whereas clocks and rods have variable lengths - which is just Feynman’s bug...
  20. T

    Negative Ease in knitting (both in flat rows and in rounds)

    I am a knitter and am interested using physics to explain the negative ease we see in knitting especially in rib [ (k1, p1) rib for example). I think some could be explained by the stretch-ability of the materials, e.g. wool, acrylic, but is there a movement of the yarn in between the "live"...
  21. J

    I Is the Surface of a Sphere Locally Flat?

    Given a certain manifold in ##R^3## I've been told that at every location ##p## it is possible to encounter a reference frame from which the metric is the euclidean at zero order from that point and its first correction is of second order. This, nevertheless does not match with the following...
  22. G

    A Flat Embedding of Our Universe: Questions & Answers

    It is mathematically proven that any intrinsically curved manifold can be derived from embedding in a flat space of sufficient number of dimensions. I heard somewhere, but lost that reference, that for our universe 10 flat dimensions are needed in the most general case.. May I ask - Is the...
  23. S

    How was Earth flat in Grenvillean?

    It is recently claimed that between 1800 and 800 million years ago, Earth was flat. This is supposedly indicated by lack of minerals that should have formed in mountains´ roots. However, from that period, there are rocks formed in orogeny - mountain forming processes. For example Grenvillean...
  24. Ibix

    A Gravitational field of an infinite flat slab

    Off the back of a recently closed thread where there was some discussion about the gravitational field of an infinite flat slab, I decided to have a play at investigating that. I've found a few interesting things. It's fairly straightforward to solve for this situation. You use Cartesian-esque...
  25. Martian2020

    B General Relativity and the curvature of space: more space or less than flat?

    General relativity. Curvature of spacetime: ok. time dilation: ok. What about space? Curvature is intrinsic and given by complex equations. But could we definitely say is there more space between 2 points along curved space through the star than would be through flat space (no star there) or...
  26. LCSphysicist

    Is this a curved or flat space?

    I would appreciate if someone check my work: I tried to simplify the answer a lot: I imagined that, if we have this ds between two points different than the distance that should be if the space was flat, so it would be enough to generalize and say that space is not flat. So, using this...
  27. steve1763

    I Parallel transport on flat space

    When parallel transporting a vector along a straight line on flat space, does the connection (when calculating the covariant derivative) always equal zero? Do things change at all when using an arbitrary connection, rather than Christoffel symbols?
  28. madafo3435

    Electric field due to a flat hollow disk

    I would like if my procedure is correct ... Due to the symmetry of the problem, I only worry about the vertical coordinate of the field, so I will work with the magnitude of the field, and I will treat the problem in polar coordinates. ##E= \int_{R_1} ^ {R_2} \int_{0} ^ {\pi} \frac {\sigma...
  29. andrewkirk

    I Does de Sitter Spacetime Have Flat Foliation?

    I was just reading about de Sitter space and the following question occurred to me: de Sitter spacetime is curved despite containing no mass-energy, because it has a positive cosmological constant. Does it have a foliation into spatially flat, constant-time hypersurfaces though? Maybe it's...
  30. S

    B Topology on flat space when a manifold is locally homeomorphic to it

    [I urge the viewer to read the full post before trying to reply] I'm watching Schuller's lectures on gravitation on youtube. It's mentioned that spacetime is modeled as a topological manifold (with a bunch of additional structure that's not relevant to this question). A topological manifold is...
  31. P

    Automotive Vehicle Parking Brake Test on a Slope [How Convert to a Flat Ground test?]

    Vehicle Mass : 3 tonnes Manufacturer's instruction is to test vehicle's parking brake effectiveness is to engage parking brake on 30.96 degrees slope. If it holds, it is effective. I do not have 30.96 degrees slope & I want to replicate the same test on flat ground. I was thinking of...
  32. P

    A How to see if a cosmological model is flat?

    The RW metric reads $$ds^2 = -dt^2 + a^2(t) \Big( \frac{dr^2}{1-kr^2} + r^2 d\theta^2 + r^2 sin(\theta)^2 d\phi^2 \Big)$$ The value of k determines the model is flat/open/closed. But say if we have a model on a completely different form, with no explicit k-dependence. How would I determine if...
  33. M

    B What Does it Mean When We Say the Universe is 'Flat'?

    When we say the universe is "flat," do we mean: 1) If you could hypothetically "zoom" out to the edge of the universe it would appear roughly as a flat like a sheet of paper with local fluctuations / bumps to indicate the presence of matter. 2) If we draw 2 parallel lines from 1 location they...
  34. jim mcnamara

    "Fatal" mistake for flat earther

    "Mad Mike" Hughes wanted to see for himself if the Earth was a sphere or flat. Went up in a rocket, when it failed, he ejected without his parachute and died in the fall. https://www.polygraph.info/a/flat-earth-believer-mad-mike-hughes-dies-in-diy-rocket-crash/30454704.html Just think how...
  35. J

    I Is Zero Curvature Space Equivalent to Flat Space in General Relativity?

    In relativity, a flat space is always regraded to be endowed with an invariant metric field ##g_{\mu\nu}(x)= \eta_{\mu\nu}##, So in a flat space the corresponding connection ##\Gamma_{\mu\nu}^\rho(x)=0## It means that if we parallel transport a vector ##v^\nu(x_0)## in the space. Then it...
  36. W

    I Equivalence Principle: Locally Flat Spacetimes Explained

    Hi all, I have ran into some confusion about the equivalence principle; perhaps I should state what I understand and then proceed to ask questions. It is my understanding that the equivalence principle states that spacetimes are locally Minkowski, and so the rules of SR apply in that locality...
  37. nomadreid

    I What use is the AdS/CFT correspondence in a flat universe?

    All the accounts which I have read (and which are accessible to my limited knowledge of General Relativity and its mathematics) on the holographic principle says vaguely that the AdS/CFT correspondence is very enlightening, but with the caveat that, well, we don't happen to live in an AdS space...
  38. M

    Transformation from de Sitter to flat spacetime coordinates

    Let me begin by stating that I'm aware of the fact that this is a metric of de Sitter spacetime, aka I know the solution, my problem is getting there. My idea/approach so far: in the coordinates ##(u,v)## the metric is given by $$g_{\mu\nu}= \begin{pmatrix}1 & 0\\ 0 & -u^2\end{pmatrix}.$$ The...
  39. A

    What is the correct moment of inertia for a spinning disk?

    Since torque= |force||radius|sin(theta) : î = |71E6||5000m|sin(30)= 177.5E9 N*m ĵ = |0||5000m|sin(30) = 0 k̂ = |-158E6||5000m|sin(30)= 395 N*m
  40. Arman777

    Proving an Equation for a Single Component Flat Universe

    I am trying to prove that for a single component flat universe $$\frac{dz}{dt_0} = H_0(1 + z) - H_0(1 + z)^{\frac{3 + 3w}{2}}$$ For a single component flat universe, ##q = \frac{2}{3 + 3w}## ##a(t) = (t/t_0)^q## ##t_0 = qH_0^{-1}## ##1 + z = (t_0/t_e)^q## Now here is my approach...
  41. T

    Induction heating flat spiral springs

    Summary: is it possible to heat a coiled spring If I had a spirally coiled spring like inserted pic, spiral coiled spring approx. 300mm dia and spring section +-12mm dia with +-1mm gauge wire, with a total length of spring approx. 4mtr-6mtr , is it possible to heat this with induction heating...
  42. Buzz Bloom

    B What is the probability that the Universe is absolutely flat?

    My questions are based on material from the following source. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.01589.pdf pg 26 Eqs 27 & 28 In the base CDM model, the Planck data constrain the Hubble constant H0 and matter density Ωm to high precision: H0=67.3±1.0 km s−1 Mpc−1 Ωm=0.315±0.013...
  43. QuarkDecay

    Friedmann's equation for a^3 with Λ, ρm

    We need to prove that a3(t)= ρo/2Λ [cosh(sqrt(24πGΛ)*t) -1] by changing into a variable of u, where u=2Λa3/ρo From Friedmann's second equation we know that Λ= ρm/ 2 Also ρm= ρo/ a3 [First attempt] I begin from Friedmann's equation where (for here), ρtotal= ρm + Λ and k=0; a'2/a2 = 8πG(ρm +...
  44. L

    Pressures distribution: solid sphere on a flat surface

    In a real case (not ideally rigid bodies), a (e. g.) hard metal sphere is on a flat (e. g.) hard metal surface (a table) and the sphere is "charged" vertically on the table by a vertical force directed downward. In this situation, an engineer told me that the maximum pressure on the table is not...
  45. A

    I Perturbation to Flat Space Metric: Geodesic Equation

    From the geodesic equation d2xμ/dΓ2+Γμ00(dt/dΓ)2=0,for non-relativistic case ,where Γ is the proper time and vi<<c implying dxi/dΓ<<dt/dΓ. Now if we assume that the metric tensor doesn't evolve with time (e,g gij≠f(t) ) then Γμ00=-1/2gμs∂g00/∂xs. If we here assume that the metric components of...
  46. A

    I Is Something Missing in the Expansion of Our Flat Universe?

    From friedmann equation And For a flat universe with k=0 and ρ=ρc ,da/dt becomes undefined and d2a/dt2 becomes 0 But for the present time we know that our universe is flat and expanding with a acceleration (q -ve) , Therefore is it here something I am missing??
  47. M

    I Saddle and flat universe edges?

    Hi, I have become very interested in cosmology recently and I had a question about the possible shapes of the Universe. I understand the critical density plays a role in the shape. This is what I know (or think I know). At the critical density of energy and matter, the universe is flat. If it...
  48. diogenesNY

    UK Guardian: Flat Earth Ocean Cruise

    The Guardian - Adam Gabbatt @adamgabbatt Thu 10 Jan 2019 01.00 ESTLast modified on Thu 10 Jan 2019 11.02 EST A group of people who believe the Earth is flat have announced their “biggest, boldest, best adventure yet”: a Flat Earth cruise scheduled for 2020. Article continues...
  49. Prez Cannady

    I Inhomogeneous Wave Eq. & Minkowski Spacetime Interval

    Answer is probably not, but is there some connection between the inhomogeneous wave equation with a constant term and the spacetime interval in Minkowski space? $$ 1) ~~ \nabla^2 u - \frac{1}{c^2} \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2} = \sum_{i=0}^2 \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x_i^2} -...