# What is Frames: Definition and 630 Discussions

Dropped Frames is a multi-album project by American musician Mike Shinoda, currently consisting of three volumes. Dropped Frames, Vol. 1 was released on July 10, 2020, with subsequent volumes following on July 31 and September 18 of the same year. The project was composed interactively with fans on Shinoda's Twitch channel. All three albums were distributed via Kenji Kobayashi Productions, Shinoda's own company capitally related to Machine Shop co. With the exception of the opening track of volume 1, "Open Door", tracks on Dropped Frames are primarily instrumental.

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1. ### I A question about Relativity of Time using Time dilation experiment

The time dilation experiment involves two frames in relative motion, let one at ground and other at train with velocity V. The light clock runs faster in rest frame, as seen by an observer A at rest in train ( just beside clock ) than that observed by an observer B in ground frame which observes...
2. ### I How do you resolve seeming contradictions in SR?

This seems like a contradiction: if I have two spatially separated observers in one frame (A and B), and one observer in another frame (C) at the same point in space as A. As I understand it, B will have the same definition of "now" as A, and A will have the same "now" as B and C, but B will...
3. ### I Question about electromagnetism and frames of reference

in this text: my question is in highlighted line: "The two rods have the same length (in S) and contain the same number of charges." why? Considering that the negative rod has movement, it should have a shorter length than the positive rod according to a relativity!
4. ### I Galilean relativity for 2 frames

Learning Galilean transformation and just want to see if I understand the concept well. both frames are moving relative to some other frame(me standing all the time, not moving). frame A moving 5m/s, frame B moving 7m/s, which in turn means frame B moving 2m/s relative to frame A. Galilleo...
5. ### A Solving "const. K" in Gourgoulhon's SR in General Frames

In sect. 2.3.2 "Ideal Clock", p. 33, of É. Gourgoulhon's text book on "Special Relativity in General Frames" $$\tau_C [ \, \text{tick}_{j}, \text{tick}_{(j + N)} \, ] = K_C \, N.$$ (equation (2.11); notation adapted.) The only other reference to this "constant K" is on the following page...
6. ### I Hartle, Gravity pg 34: Question about Time in Non-Inertial Frames

Hartle, gravity pg 34 " An observer in a inertial frame can construct a clock that measures the time t"*)Is time something else that exists irrespective of clocks? What we do is just that we measure it? Pg 35 " ...It's a central assumption of Newtonian mechanics that there is a single notion of...
7. ### Questioning a Physics Problem: Taking Different Reference Frames

for (a): I basically got the correct answer, but when resolved with taking different reference lines/frames I got a different answer. for the 1st attempt I took y = 0 (for both ##U_{el}## and ##U_{grav}) at the position where the spring is uncompressed. for the 2nd attempt (with wrong solution)...
8. ### B How often do you re-acquire dark and bias frames?

Semi-random question: I generated dark and bias master frames (and from those, bad pixel maps) about a year ago. I'm sure my camera sensor has degraded over time.. b/c entropy... and so I'm wondering if it's worthwhile to create a new set. How often do you 'update' your dark and bias master...
9. ### I Rigid body mechanics and coordinate frames

Hello all, I have some issues understanding the inertial-frame (or global-frame, G-frame) versus the body-frame (B-frame) when it comes to simulating the motion of a rigid body in 2 dimensions (planar body mechanics) in a system of ODEs. I have been self-learning from textbooks on simulating...
10. ### I Comparing Clock Rates in Accelerated vs Constant Velocity Frames

@PeroK sent me here based on a discussion starting at https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/some-ideas-on-interstellar-space-travel.1006562/post-6550265. Summary: Someone claimed that an accelerated observer's clock (observer at 1g from Earth to halfway to Alpha Centauri, then -1g the rest of...
11. ### Question about Statics problems involving frames

hello, i have a question in this topic of frames in mechanic engineering, if i have a problem with 3 or 4 members that connected and a moment of couple is applied at specific frame,a moment of couple is general and is applied at any given point of the body. so when i dismember the frame and draw...
12. ### B A difficulty with the equivalence of all inertial reference frames

Although I am not a physicist, I am interested in physics, and recently I've been reading about special relativity. I have a doubt about it, a difficulty I see in the equivalence of all inertial reference frames which I haven't found solved anywhere, and I've thought perhaps you in this Forum...
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### Using ffmpeg to extract every n frames from a given range of an m2ts video

Hi PF! I have a video titled myvideo.m2ts that is 2 hours long at 60 fps. I would like to extract every second from 54 min to 55 min via ffmpeg. It looks like I would execute something similar to this: ffmpeg -i myvideo.m2ts -r 1 output_%04d.png except this will run the entire video. Any help...
14. ### Distance moved in two different inertial frames

We have one elevator at rest and another moving up or down at uniform speed, so both of them are considered to be inertial frames. Taking the initial height of the coin as ##H = 0 + \frac{1}{2} g{t_1}^2## and ##H = 0 + \frac{1}{2} g{t_2}^2## ##t_1 = t_2 = t = \sqrt{\frac{2H}{g}}## in both...
15. ### B Inertial vs non inertial frames

I previously thought Earth is inertial frame and relative to Earth non accelerating frames are inertial too. But after watching this video, I came to know that it’s not the frame with respect to which we decide whether a frame is inertial or not. It’s the particle. When a particle is not...
16. ### I Proving Galilean Transformation for Inertial Frames

I know we can prove that a Galilean transformation sends one inertial frame to another inertial frame, by proving ##\frac{d^2 f(\vec{r})}{d(f(t))^2} = \frac{d^2 \vec{r}}{dt^2}##, but can we prove the reverse? Can we prove that if the acceleration seen in two frames are the same, then the...
17. ### B Understanding Entangled Particles in Different Time Frames

Here is something I don't understand which I expect someone here can explain. If one member of an entangled pair goes on a trip at relativistic speeds, there will be two different frames of observation, with two different elapsed times. The time frames can get off-set by years, over a long...
18. ### Acceleration between two frames

The correct option is given as (d) I think I am able to visualize the problem but not able to put it in the equations shared above. If the the two frames are moving away from the particle at ##4 m/s^2## in opposite directions we get the acceleration between the frames as ##8 m/s^2##...
19. ### I About global inertial frames in GR

Hi, starting from this thread Principle of relativity for proper accelerating frame of reference I'm convincing myself of some misunderstanding about what a global inertial frame should actually be. In GR we take as definition of inertial frame (aka inertial coordinate system or inertial...
20. ### A Moments and forces in different frames of reference

Good morning! I know this may sound a little odd, because there is a theorem regarding it, but i have this question. Basically, a CFD analysis gives me the value of the forces and the moments, as a function of fuselage's orientation, in a particular frame of reference. How can i calculate the...
21. ### I Transforming Object Positions b/w Frames: A Procedure

Let's same I have an observer A and B that initially occupy the same point at ##t=0## but they have a relative velocity to each other. Now let's assume there is an object C that moves in a circular motion around some point from A's frame. The initial condition/position is given (in A's frame)...
22. ### I Twin Paradox: Spacetime Physics Ch.4 & 202 Year Difference

Spacetime physics chapter 4 describes this wonderfully well chosen set of speeds/distances for the twin paradox. A traveler departs from Earth at a speed of 99/101 (1=speed of light), traveling to a star that is 99light years away. From Earth's perspective, the traveler takes 101 years to go...
23. ### Momentum in different referance frames

I aready got the solution for this exercise. However, the solution used the referance frame from the car: What I'm trying to understand is the line: Because before reading the solution, I was trying to solve it using the lab frame. So this is my work so far: Using conservation of momentum and...

pls help me
25. ### B Force between 2 Point Charges Across Frames

So, i was trying to calculate, the net force between 2 point charges in their rest frame, and in a frame where they are moving. So, assume, there are 2 point charges each of charge +q. They are r distance apart from each other and moving parallel to each other with a speed v relative to a lab...
26. ### Kinetic energies in two reference frames

A very basic and simple query, but I can't see my way through it. A mass m moves at speed v1 relative to a truck traveling at speed v2 , fig.a. All components except this mass are massless. In a truck-stationary frame, the mass collides with a barrier on the truck liberating kinetic...

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### Should angular velocities always be referred to frames?

This is a semantic question, without any implications really, but I wondered if someone could check if I understand this correctly? The angular velocity ##\vec{\Omega}## of a frame ##\mathcal{F}## with respect to another frame ##\mathcal{F}'## is defined such that, for any vector...
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### Calculating cosmic velocities using different frames of reference

This problem is conventionally solved using the Earth frame of reference. We require that the hyperbolic excess velocity w.r.t. the Earth has the same magnitude as the speed of the Earth around the sun, so that we zero the velocity in the heliocentric frame. Energy conservation per unit mass in...
38. ### I About inertial reference frames and logical deduction

Hi, consider the following in the context of classic mechanics and SR. We know there exist special "frame of reference" according to free objects stay at rest or keep moving with constant uniform velocities. Suppose you single out a such reference frame according to the Newton law of inertia...
39. ### I Einstein vs Newton: The concept of inertial vs non inertial frames

Is concept of inertial vs non inertial frame inveted in Einsten theory of relativity or Newton knows that we can see on same object from different perspective? (Newton set 3 laws for inertial frame,so did he knew for realitivtiy when view object form different perspective/frame and did he...
40. ### Elementary Python Questions: Data Frames, k-nary functions

Hi All, A couple of questions, please: 1) Say df is a dataframe in Python Pandas, and I select a specific column from df: Y=df[column].values. What kind of data structure is Y? 2) I want to find the sum of two numbers: Def Sum(a=0,b=0): return a+b If I want to find a sum over sum data...
41. ### Rotating frames - Apparent gravity

Hi On the Earth , apparent gravity comes from the vector addition of the gravitational force directed towards the centre and the outward centrifugal force. It means that for a pendulum at rest , the direction the bob hangs downwards is not directly towards the centre of the Earth but there is a...
42. ### B Why is "time orthogonal to space" in inertial reference frames?

I'm reading about the geometry of spacetime in special relativity (ref. Core Principles of Special and General Relativity by Luscombe). Here's the relevant section: ----- Minkowski space is a four-dimensional vector space (with points in one-to-one correspondence with those of ##\mathbb{R}^4##)...
43. ### B How Many Reference Frames Can Be Coincident at the Origin?

In a previous thread, I referenced an argument from the book the Scientist as Philosopher by Friedel Weinert, in which he talks about the reference frames of two relatively moving observers. He made a statement that I had't thought about before, but when I was reading it this time around a...
44. ### I Cosmology: Inertial Reference Frames & Misconceptions

I was reading an article about the misconceptions in cosmological horizons and I wanted to clarify an idea. https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0310808 In cosmological perspective, is there a global inertial reference frame (maybe CMB) ? Or all inertial frames are defined locally and there is no...
45. ### Paging, Virtual Address Space and Physical Memory and Page Frames

Hi, The following is not a homework question. My question is: My answer is: Total pages required = 2^32/2^7 = 2^25 pages Thus page table has 2^25 entries PM = 2^16 Total page frames in PM = 2^16/2^ 7= 9 page frames Somebody please guide me what is the correct solution for the above. Zulfi.
46. ### A Orthogonal spacelike and timelike vectors and inertial frames

I know that any vector ##V## in Minkowski spacetime can be classified in three different categories based on its norm ##|V| = \sqrt{V \cdot V} = V^{\mu}V_{\mu}##. These are: 1) If ##V^{\mu}V_{\mu} < 0##, ##V^{\mu}## is timelike. 2) If ##V^{\mu}V_{\mu} > 0##, ##V^{\mu}## is spacelike. 3) If...
47. ### I Inertial frames in changing gravitational fields

The man floating inside the elevator travels through space at constant velocity, and soon reaches proximity to a planet. To an outside observer, the elevator appears to change course and accelerate towards the planet, so he reasons there is a force acting on the elevator, changing its course and...
48. ### Time dilation between two frames

[Wow - special relativity is amazing but boy is there a lot to get your head around! We're only being introduced to it as a taster of college courses but the few lessons we've had have left me with more questions than answers; most fascinating topic yet, I think!] Unfortunately I've tackled a...
49. ### Optimisation software for trusses (or frames)

Dear experts, What software is available (free or not) to optimise the member cross-sections of trusses or frames? Which one is your favorite? Would any of them optimise the topology and geometry? Ideally, the global buckling of the whole structure as well as the buckling and strength of...
50. ### I Lorentz transformation for 3 frames (2 dimensions)

I want to know why an else solution can not get the right answer. And want to know the way to correct this solution.Supposed that a frame S'' is moving in the lab frame at ##\beta_x## in the x-direction, ##\beta_y## in the y-direction, now I want to find out the Lorentz transformation between...